Presentation on theme: "Care of G. Battimelli, L. Benussi, E. Boscolo, P. Gianotti, G"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Care of G. Battimelli, L. Benussi, E. Boscolo, P. Gianotti, G. Mazzitelli, M. Moulson, C. Petrascu, B. Sciascia, with the support of the Scientific Information Service (SIS)
2Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare The INFN:promotes, coordinates and performs scientific research in subnuclear, nuclear and astroparticle physics,as well as the research and technological development necessary for activities in these sectors,in close collaboration with universities,and within a framework of international cooperation
3The origins of the INFNEnrico Fermi and the “Boys of Via Panisperna” conducted a series of fundamental nuclear physics experiments at the Isitiuto di Fisica at the University of Rome in the 1930s.Fermi realized that continuing progress in the field would require costly instruments and technical infrastructure (e.g., accelerators). Fermi (in Rome) and Bruno Rossi (in Florence) sought to establish an “Istituto Nazionale di Fisica” in the 1930s.Because of the war, this was impossible until Edoardo Amaldi worked to found the INFN in 1951.AmaldiD’AgostinoFermiSegrèRasetti
41951 1957 4 University Sections Milan, Turin, Padua, and Rome Laboratori Nazionali di FrascatiFrascatiThe origins of the INFN
5INFN oggi Gran Sasso Legnaro VIRGO-EGO European Gravitational Milano BicoccaVIRGO-EGOEuropeanGravitationalObservatory20 Sections 11 Affiliated Groups4 National LaboratoriesLaboratori del Sud(Catania)
6What do we do at LNF? Fundamental research Study the microscopic structure of matterFundamental researchDevelop and construct particle detectorsSearch for gravitational wavesDevelop theoreticalmodelsStudy and develop accelerating techniquesPerform material studies and biomedical researchwith synchrotron lightDevelop and support computingsystems and networks
8The scientific methodThe modern scientific method was first formally introduced by GalileoObservationHypothesisPredictionGalileo Galilei
9The modern understanding of matter stems from centuries of inquiry What is matter made of?The modern understanding of matter stems from centuries of inquiryAncient Greeks: 4 elementsJohn Dalton: Atomic Therory (1805):The chemical elements are made of atoms.The atoms of an element are identical in mass.Atoms of different elements have different masses.Atoms combine only in whole-number ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:3, etc.)Atoms can not be created or destroyed.
10The periodic tableIn 1869, Mendeleev introduces the periodic table and predicts the existence of elements not yet discovered
11Seeing the invisibleIn 1898, Thomson discovered the electron and hypothesized that the electrons are uniformly distributed within the atom, like rasins in rasin bread-The Thomson atomIn , Rutherford and colleagues tested this hypothesis by bombarding a gold foil with alpha particles.Some scattered at large angles, indicating the presence of a heavy nucleus.The Rutherford atom
12ObservationObserving objects around us is like performing a “Rutherford” experimentDetectorAcceleratorSourceObserverParticle BeamLightObjectTargetIn the microscopic world, the target and beam have similar dimensions
13Observation10-10 mThe wavelength of visible light is 400 to 800 nm (i.e., ~10-7 m)To see atoms (and smaller) we need a smaller probe!
14Particle sourcesRutherford used alpha particles from the decay of radioactive elements. To obtain particle beams of different types and energies, today we construct particle accelerators.Particle beams start out from a source. The simplest example is electrons emitted by a hot filament, as in a lightbulb.Particles acquire energy when they are accelerated by an electric field+−
16Experiments using fixed targets synchrotrontargetSLdetectorsp+/-e-,e+,p …LINACp, n, etcMatter is mainly emptyAll particles which do not interact are lostEnergy is lost to moving the center of mass“Target” is a nucleus, with a complex structure
17A new approach: Use colliding beams detectorBruno Touschek, Frascati, 1960Accumulation ringThe non-interacting particles can be reused in successive roundsCollisions are performed in the center-of-mass frameThe circulating particles can be either elementary or complex (nuclei or atoms)
18A related idea: Collide particle and antiparticle m-m+e+e-E = 2mm c2E = 2me c2E = 2mt c2E = m c2The larger the energy, the greater the number of particles that can be studied
19Matter-antimatter colliders LEP at CERN (Geneva) 1988LHC at CERN: operating since 2009ADONE at Frascati in 1969DAFNEADA at Frascati in 1959
20The “Phantom of the Opera” The Standard ModelFermionsBosonseelectronnee-neutrinoddownupuImmuonnm-neutrinosstrangeccharmIIttaunt-neutrinobbottomtopIIIggluonGravityThe “Phantom of the Opera”QuarksgphotonForce CarriersZbosonWLeptonsMatter familiesHiggsboson?
21The fundamental forces IntensityEffectGravitational1Keeps you on your chairZbosonWWeak decays:n p + e- + nWeak1029Electromagnetic1040Holds atoms togethergphotonThe fundamental particles interact via four forces, each very different from the others, particularly in the effective range and intensity.If one arbitrarily specifies the strength of the gravitational force as 1…ggluonHolds nuclei togetherStrong1043
23Physics at DAΦNEOut of the electron-positron collisions, a ϕ meson can be produced. It decays immediately into two other particles, the K-mesons (kaons). The two kaons can be either neutral or oppositely charged.Ke-e+e-e+e-e+e-e-e+e+e-e+e-e+e-e-e+e-KThe kaons are used by the experiments (KLOE, FINUDA, etc.)At DAΦNE, up to kaons per second are produced
24Kaonic atoms Kaonic hydrogen (DEAR - Siddharta) n=1 p n=2 n=25 K- 2p 1s (Ka )X ray of interestIn the DEAR experiment, the strong force is investigated by studying kaonic atoms, in which a K- substitutes an atomic electron.
25FINUDA (Fisica Nucleare a DAΦNE) In the FINUDA experiment, the strong force is studied by placing a “foreign body” inside the nucleuspnLHypernucleusududususdK- n L p-Reconstruction of a hypernuclear event in the FINUDA detector
26KLOE (K LOng Experiment) KLOE studies the differences between matter and antimatter, by looking at kaon (and antikaon) decays
27DAΦNE-LuceSynchrotron light is the radiation emitted when a charged particle’s path is bent by a magnetic field.This radiation is very useful for studies in:Biophysics and medicineSolid state physics and electronicsMaterials sciencephoton
28SPARCOriginally a by-product, synchrotron light has become a powerful scientific tool. It is now produced on purpose for various uses(Sorgente Pulsata Auto-amplificata di Radiazione Coerente) is a project with 4 principal beamlines, aimed at the development of an X-ray source of very high brilliance (energy emitted per unit solid angle)150 MeV Advanced Photo-InjectorProduction of an electron beam and compression by magnetic and radiofrequency systemsSASE-FEL Visible-VUV ExperimentFor the study of beam-transport systemsX-ray sourceX-ray monochromator
29Coherent, monochromatic waves Incoherent radiationCoherent radiationCoherent, monochromatic wavesFixed wavelength and fixed relative phaseEquivalent to many, many waves superimposed
30FLAME (Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments) is an extremely high power laser source (300 TW), with bursts lasting 20 fs and a frequency of 10 Hz.The LI2FE laboratoryBy combining the SPARC electron beam with the FLAME laser, we produce a unique monochromatic X-ray source.This can be used to produce highquality medical images usingless radiation.LI2FE is an interdisciplinary laboratory inaugurated in Frascati in December 2010.
31A distortion in the fabric of space The force of gravityA distortion in the fabric of space
32Gravitational waves: an analogy Hi! How are you?antennaElectromagnetic waves are produced by an electric charge when acceleratedGravitational waves: an analogyGravitational waves are produced by masses that undergo acceleration
33Gravitational wavesGravitational waves are 1040 times less intense than electromagnetic waves
34Search for gravitational waves: NAUTILUS Supernova in our galaxy h=10-18Supernova in Virgo h=10-21Thermal T=300 K, DL=10-16 mThermal T=3 K, DL=10-17 mThermal T=300 mK DL=10-18 m
37The future of LNFDAΦNE is at the end of its scientific program, but using the skills and experience acquired, we are designing a new “particle factory” of higher energy and luminosity.The SuperB project has been chosen by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research as a flagship project for Italian research.
38Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, info: http://www.lnf.infn.it/sis/edu ADA e ADONESPARCATLASNAUTILUSKLOECentro diCalcoloOPERADAFNEDAFNE-LBTFFISAFINUDASIDDHARTHAAuditorium