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G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom Interferometers and Atomic Clocks: From Ground to Space Università degli Studi di Firenze - Dipartimento di Fisica,

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Presentation on theme: "G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom Interferometers and Atomic Clocks: From Ground to Space Università degli Studi di Firenze - Dipartimento di Fisica,"— Presentation transcript:

1 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom Interferometers and Atomic Clocks: From Ground to Space Università degli Studi di Firenze - Dipartimento di Fisica, LENS Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Firenze Guglielmo M. Tino

2 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Laser cooling of atoms v L L Lab ref. frame Atom ref. frame L (1-v/c) L (1+v/c) Idea: T.W. Hänsch, A. Schawlow, 1975 Exp. demonstration: S. Chu et al., 1985 Sr MOT LENS, Firenze

3 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Laser cooling: temperatures Minimum temperature for Doppler cooling: Examples: T D T r Na240 K 2.4 K Rb120 K 360 nK Cs120 K 200 nK Single photon recoil temperature: Atomic Temperature : k B T = Mv 2 rms

4 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

5 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

6 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom optics lenses mirrors beam-splitters atom laser interferometers atom laser Oven laser Atomic beam atom laser

7 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom Michelson Interferometer on a Chip Using a Bose-Einstein Condensate Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, Saijun Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005)

8 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic clocks

9 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Accuracy realization of the standard Stability stability of the frequency: depends on of the oscillator The measurement of time OSCILLATORCOUNTER

10 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic clocks. t = 1 The definition of the second The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the 133 Cs atom (13th CGPM, 1967)

11 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic fountain clock NIST-F1 G.M. Tino, Firenze, 11/12/2003

12 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Cold Atoms Clocks in Space Interrogate fast (hot) atoms over long distances T = 10 ms Use laser cooled atoms, limitation due to the presence of gravity T = 1 s Use laser cooled atoms in microgravity T = 10 s C. Salomon et al., C.R. Acad. Sci. 2, 1313 (2001) PHARAO

13 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Accuracy of the atomic time from C. Salomon

14 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Optical clocks: Towards 10 -18 -10 -19 Direct optical- wave connection by optical frequency comb Narrow optical transitions o ~ 1 Hz, 0 ~ 10 15 Hz Candidate atoms Trapped ions: Hg +, In +, Sr +, Yb +,… Cold neutral atoms: H, Ca, Sr, Yb,… (Fermions?) Th. Udem et al., Nature 416, 14 march 2002

15 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006

16 Ca clock example From L. Hollberg, Hyper symposium 2002

17 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Method: (H. Katori) Interrogate atoms in optical lattice without frequency shift Long interaction time Large atom number (10 8 ) Lamb-Dicke regime Excellent frequency stability Small frequency shifts: No collisions (fermion) No recoil effect (confinement below optical wavelength) Small Zeeman shifts (only nuclear magnetic moments)… 87 Sr optical clock

18 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Towards a Sr clock – The experiment in Firenze 1 S 0 - 3 P 1 (7.5 kHz) 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 (1 mHz, 87 Sr) 1 S 0 - 3 P 2 (0.15 mHz) Optical trapping in Lamb-Dicke regime with negligible change of clock frequency Optical clocks using visible intercombination lines Firenze 2003, Magneto-optical trapping of all Sr isotopes Comparison with different ultra-stable clocks (PHARAO/ACES) PHARAO G. Ferrari, P.Cancio, R. Drullinger, G. Giusfredi, N. Poli, M. Prevedelli, C. Toninelli and G.M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243002 (2003)

19 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic clocks Location finding Precision navigation and navigation in outer space Variability of Earths rotation rate and other periodic phenomena Earths crustal dynamics Secure telecommunications Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Spectroscopy Expression of other physical quantities in terms of time Tests of constancy of fundamental constants Tests of the special and general theories of relativity

20 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atom Interferometers

21 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Quantum interference Initial state | i Final state | f Interference of transition amplitudes P ( | i | f ) = |A I + A II | 2 = |A I | 2 + |A II | 2 + 2 Re(A I A II * ) path II amplitude A II path I amplitude A I

22 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic clocks: Interference fringes

23 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Time-domain Ramsey-Bordé interferences with cold Ca atoms (PTB)

24 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 atomic flux at exit port 1 at exit port 2 Phase difference Atom Interferometry Atom interferometer

25 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Matter wave sensors rotations: accelerations:

26 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Maximum interaction time : 90 ms 3 rotation axes 2 acceleration axes Cycling frequency 2Hz Expected sensitivity (10 6 at): gyroscope : 4 10 -8 rad.s -1.Hz -1/2 accelerometer : 3 10 -8 m.s -2.Hz -1/2 50 cm 30 cm One pair of Raman lasers switched on 3 times Magneto-Optical Traps Detections Launching velocity: 2.4 m.s -1 SYRTE cold atom gyroscope

27 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Interferometer MOT 1 15 cm 3 mm A Preparation Detection MOT 2 C. Jentsch, T. Müller, E. Rasel, and W. Ertmer, Gen. Rel. Grav, 36, 2197 (2004) & Adv. At. Mol. Physics IQO Cold Atom Sagnac Interferometer

28 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 MAGIA Measure g using free falling atoms and atom interferometry Add known source masses Measure change of g Determine G g aMaM Misura Accurata di G mediante Interferometria Atomica G.M. Tino, in 2001: A Relativistic Spacetime Odyssey, World Scientific (2003) M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, J. Stuhler, G.M. Tino, Phys. Lett. A 318, 184 (2003) http://www.fi.infn.it/sezione/esperimenti/MAGIA/home.html

29 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 In collaboration with LNF, Frascati Misura Accurata di G mediante Interferometria Atomica http://www.fi.infn.it/sezione/esperimenti/MAGIA/home.html MAGIA

30 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Laser and optical system Phase locked lasers for Raman transitions L. Cacciapuoti et al., Rev. Scient. Instr. 76, 053111 (2005) MAGIA: Firenze atom gravity gradiometer apparatus Source masses and support

31 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 MAGIA: first results

32 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Precision Measurement of Gravity at Micrometer Scale using Ultracold Sr Atoms = m g /2 h G. Ferrari et al., 2006, to be published

33 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Test of the gravitational 1/r 2 law in the sub-mm range with atom interferometry sensors (Casimir?) a = 2 G d Example: Au 19 g/cm 3 d 200 m a 2 x 10 -9 ms -2 -d- 95% confidence level constraints on a Yukawa violation of the gravitational inverse-square law. The vertical axis represents the strength of a deviation relative to that of Newtonian gravity while the horizontal axis designates its characteristic range. The yellow region has been excluded (From S. J. Smullin et al., 2005) G.M. Tino, in 2001: A Relativistic Spacetime Odyssey, Firenze, 2001, World Scientific (2003) G.M. Tino, Nucl. Phys. B 113, 289 (2002) G. Ferrari et al., 2006, to be published = m g /2 h

34 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 From Earth Laboratories to Space

35 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space PHARAO : Cold Atom Clock in Space. CNES (France) A. Clairon, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, C. Mandache, F. Allard, M. Maximovic, F. Pereira, G. Santarelli, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, H. Marion, D. Calonico, (BNM-LPTF), N. Dimarcq (LHA), C. Salomon (ENS) SHM : Space Hydrogen Maser. ON (Switzerland) L. Jornod, D. Goujon, L.G. Bernier, P. Thomann, G. Busca MWL : Microwave link. Kayser-Threde-Timetech (Germany) W. Schaefer, S. Bedrich ACES is open to any interested scientific user W. Knabe, P. Wolf, L. Blanchet, P. Teyssandier, P. Uhrich, A. Spallici New members : 2001: UWA (Australia), A. Luiten, M. Tobar, J. Hartnett, R. Kovacich 2002: LENS (Italy), G.M. Tino, G. Ferrari, L. Cacciapuoti ESA: MSM Stephen Feltham CNES: C. Sirmain + team of 20 engineers at CST, Toulouse Support: ESA, CNES, BNM, CNRS A cold atom clock in space Worldwide access Fundamental physics tests H= 400 km V=7 km/s T= 5400 s

36 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 ACES ON COLUMBUS EXTERNAL PLATFORM M = 227 kgP = 450 W Launch date : 2009 Mission duration : 18 months ACES

37 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 ACES objectives L. Blanchet, C. Salomon, P. Teyssandier, and P. Wolf, A&A 370, 320 (2001)

38 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 ESA-AO-2004 Life and Physical Sciences and Applied Research Projects

39 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 PARCS Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space

40 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 HYPER Differential measurement between two atom gyroscopes and a star tracker orbiting around the Earth Improving knowledge of fine-structure constant Mapping Lense-Thirring effect close to the Earth Atomic gyroscope control of a satellite Testing EP with microscopic bodies http://sci.esa.int/home/hyper/index.cfm

41 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 ESA-AO-2004 AI

42 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Laser Cooled Atom (LCA) Sensor for Ultra-High-Accuracy Gravitational Acceleration and Rotation Measurements in response to ESA ITT No. AO-1-4477/03/NL/CH

43 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Prototype field ready sensor Laser system Sensor optomechanics Sensor head From M. Kasevich talk at SpacePart '03 Conference Washington D.C., December 10th - 12th, 2003. W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 SpacePart 03

44 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 JPL http://horology.jpl.nasa.gov/quantum/atominterferometry.html

45 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 BEC in space

46 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 pumps µ-metal shielding Battery pack Laser DC-DC transformer Computer control From E. Rasel, 2005

47 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006

48 Applications of new quantum sensors based on atom interferometry Development of transportable atom interferometers Short-distances forces measurement Test of equivalence principle space New detectors for gravitational waves ? geophysics Search for electron-proton charge inequality New definition of kg Measurement of fundamental constants G

49 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Future prospects: Atomic clocks New optical clocks with fractional stability ~ 10 -17 -10 -19 mm-scale positioning and long-distance clock syncronization Very large baseline interferometry (VLBI) and geodesy Search for variation of fundamental constants Tests of SR and GR in Earth orbit (ACES, OPTIS) Improved tests of GR in solar orbit: Shapiro delay, red shift, …

50 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Conclusions New atomic quantum devices can be developped with unprecedented sensitivity New atomic quantum devices can be developped with unprecedented sensitivity using ultracold atoms and atom optics using ultracold atoms and atom optics Applications: Fundamental physics, Earth science, Space research, Commercial Applications: Fundamental physics, Earth science, Space research, Commercial Well developped laboratory prototypes Well developped laboratory prototypes Work in progress for transportable/space-compatible systems Work in progress for transportable/space-compatible systems

51 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Fine

52 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 LINKS

53 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 h/m and fine structure constant S. Chu et al., 2002

54 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Goal: Redefinition of kg on microscopic quantities with accuracy better than 10 -8 Idea: Watt-balance compares electrical and mechanical realization of Watt Watt balance groups working at NPLNPL (UK), NISTNIST (USA), METASMETAS (Switzerland), BNM (France) BNM The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (1st CGPM, 1889) Unit of mass

55 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Tests of weak equivalence principle Best tests so far: EOT-Wash group (Adelberger, Gundlach), See http://www.npl.washington.edu/eotwash/ Long range EP tested at the level of 10 -13 Atoms: Prospects different isotopes, e.g. 85 Rb vs 87 Rb different atoms, e.g. Rb vs Cs bosons vs fermions, e.g. Rb vs 40 K different spins anti-matter (?) Space: MICROSCOPE 10 -15 STEP 10 -18 Fray S, et al. PRL. 93, 240404 (2004) g/g=(0.4+/-1.2)x10 -7 ( ) 10 -12 - 10 -13

56 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Test of equivalence principle for anti-matter H Compare g g/g 10 -9 ? - Time of flight - Atom interferometry Raman transitions between 2S HFS sublevels 2S high-P levels transitions (T. Heupel et al., Europhys. Lett. 57, 158 (2002)) H anti-H production (ATHENA, ATRAP) anti-H selective state population anti-H cooling anti-H trapping g measurement: Steps: 1s 1/2 2s 1/2 2p 243 nm 121.6 nm 243 nm 1/2 3/ 2 1420 MHz 0 1 0 1 177 MHz 3s 1/2 3p 44 55 H levels partial scheme (not to scale) 1/2 3/ 2 10968 MHz 59 MHz 24 MHz g/g 10 -3 ?

57 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Search for electron-proton charge inequality Electrostatic, ferromagnetic, diamagnetic levitation Millikan (1935), Morpurgo (1966-1984), Braginsky (1970), Stover (1967), Rank (1968), LaRue (1979) Gas flow Piccard and Kessler (1925), Hillas & Cranshaw (1960), King (1960) Acoustic cavity Dylla and King (1973) Atomic and molecolar beams Hughes (1957), Chamberlain & Hughes (1963), Fraser (1965), Shapiro (1957), Shull (1967) Present limit ep < 1x10 -21 e (From G. Carugno and G. Ruoso)

58 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Chiu - Hoffmann (1964) Indipendenza della carica dellelettrone dalla velocità e trasformazioni di Lorentz Con atomi di vario Z miglioro limite Neutralità materia Einstein (1929) Spiegare campi magnetici terra e sole ep + rotazione -> i -> B si aspettava ep = 3x10 -19 e ep = q e + q p ; q n ; q Bondi - Lyttleton (1959); Hoyle (1960) se ep ~ 2x10 -18 e => espansione universo Feinberg - Goldhaber (1959); Gell-Mann - Nambu (1960) ep 0 per spiegare leggi di conservazione (es. numero barionico) Motivazioni: digressione storica Limiti su q n e q Se C e CPT conservati da q n = q e + q p + q ricavo limiti Attualmente q n < 10 -21 e Esp. con fasci di neutroni termici (1988) q < 10 -15 e Da astrofisica, Barbiellini - Cocconi (1987) (Da G. Carugno and G. Ruoso)

59 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Search for electron-proton charge inequality ep < 1x10 -25 e ?

60 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Gravitational wave detection by atom interferometry Presentation at 2004 Aspen Winter College on Gravitational Waves: See http://www.ligo.caltech.edu/LIGO_web/Aspen2004/pdf/vetrano.pdf See also: Chiao RY, Speliotopoulos AD, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 861 (2004) A. Roura, D.R. Brill, B.L. Hu, C.W. Misner, gr-qc/0409002 Virgo

61 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 LMXRBs & Perturbed newbornNS Slow Pulsars (1 y) Sources - Detectors -24 -22 -20 -18 h [1/sqrt Hz] f [Hz] - 4 - 2 0 2 4 10 10 10 10 10 Galactic binaries Coalescence of massive BH NS-NS and BH-BH Coalescence SN core collapse ms Pulsars (1 y) 1 2 3 1 LISA 2 LIGO – Virgo 3 A.I.

62 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Gravimeters Resolution: 3x10 -9 g after 1 minute Absolute accuracy: g/g<3x10 -9 A. Peters, K.Y. Chung and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999)

63 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Gravimeter application in geophysics Gravimetric measurements at Etna Pizzi DeNeri site during a 48-h-long period encompassing the beginning of the 2002-2003 eruption (Branca et al. Geoph. Res. Lett. 30 2077 (2003))

64 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Gravimeter Application Geophysical research Monitoring of magma migration in active volcanic areas Detection of vertical crustal motion in seismogenic areas Post glacial rebound studies Measuring uplift in subduction areas Earthquake (strain accumulation in tectonic areas during interseismic phase) Calibrating measurement made by other techniques: height measurements, relative gravimeter Environmental monitoring Water table monitoring in deep and/or multiple acquifers Monitoring of mining effect Slope and earth fill dam stability Global sea level studies for earth warming assessment On site inspection of sites for nuclear test or else. Mineral exploration

65 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Gradiometer applications Airborne gravity measurement for oil and mineral exploration hazard investigation Satellite gravity meausrement : GOCE project GRACE Project Gravity gradiometry gives higher resolution in Monitoring of anomalies Data processing Joint gravimetric-seismological data inversion Gradiometer based on absolute Gravimeter combines complementary range of sensitivity for different mass/distance source Tensorometer

66 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 ACES: Relativity tests

67 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Search for variation of

68 G.M. Tino, FPS-06, LNF, 22/3/2006 Search for variation of


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