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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the adverb ci to mean there or to replace certain prepositional phrases. Use the pronoun ne to replace a previously mentioned phrase that includes the partitive or an expression of quantity, or that begins with the preposition di.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-2 In Lezione 1A you learned how to use ci in the expressions cè and ci sono. Ci can be used to replace expressions of location, which are often preceded by the prepositions a, in, su, or da. Vai a casa? Are you going home? Sì, ci vado. Yes, Im going there. Siete andate in biblioteca? Did you go to the library? No, non ci siamo andate. No, we didnt go there. Sei mai stato dal dentista? Have you ever been to the dentist? Sì, ci sono stato ieri. Yes, I was there yesterday.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-3 Ci is also used to replace phrases beginning with a after many common verbs. Credo allamore a prima vista. I believe in love at first sight. Ci credo. I believe in it. Pensa sempre ai compiti. She is always thinking about homework. Ci pensa sempre. She is always thinking about it. È riuscito a svegliarsi presto. He was able to wake up early. Ci è riuscito. He was able to do it. La ragazza prova a truccarsi senza lo specchio. The girl is trying to put on makeup without the mirror. La ragazza ci prova senza lo specchio. The girl is trying to do it without the mirror.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-4 Ci follows the same placement rules as object pronouns. You learned these rules in Lezione 5A. Se stai male, perché non vai dal medico? Ci devi andare! If youre not feeling well, why dont you go to the doctor? You should go (there)! No, non voglio andarci. No, I dont want to go (there). Hai lasciato le chiavi in farmacia. Ci torni adesso? You left the keys at the pharmacy. Are you going back (there) now? Sì, ma prima di tornarci, devo telefonare. Yes, but before I go back (there), I must call.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-5 Il dottore non cè. The doctor is not in. Linfermiera è lì. The nurse is over there. Note that ci is used differently from là/lì, which you learned in Lezione 1A. Use là/lì to indicate a specific location but not, as with ci, to point out the existence of something.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-6 Ne Ne means some or any when it replaces the partitive. It follows the same rules of placement as ci. Hai dello shampoo? Do you have any shampoo? Ne hai? Do you have any?
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-7 Ne can also mean of it/them when replacing nouns used with expressions of quantity. Note that the use of ne is required in these cases. Ho due asciugacapelli. I have two hairdryers. Ne ho due. I have two (of them).
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-8 When ne is used with an adjective expressing quantity, the adjective must agree with the noun that ne replaced. Quanti cani avete? How many dogs do you have? Ne abbiamo molti. We have many (of them).
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-9 Ne often replaces phrases introduced by di, especially after expressions such as avere paura/ bisogno/voglia di. Ho voglia di dormire. I feel like sleeping. Ne ho voglia. I feel like it. Parli sempre di politica? Do you always talk about politics? Ne parli sempre? Do you always talk about it?
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-10 If ne is used with an expression of quantity in the passato prossimo, the past participle must agree with the noun being replaced. However, when ne replaces a prepositional phrase, no agreement is necessary. Quanti rasoi hai comprato? How many razors did you buy? Ne ho comprati due. I bought two of them. Quanta crema ha usato? How much lotion did she use? Ne ha usata molta. She used a lot (of it). Ha parlato di politica. He spoke about politics. Ne ha parlato. He spoke about it.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-11 1. Ieri sono andato allospedale. (ci) ___________________________ 2. Andiamo spesso dal farmacista. (ci) _________________________ 3. Vado in palestra per fare esercizio. (ci) ______________________ 4. Vittoria sta in bagno 45 minuti la mattina. (ci) __________________ 5. Ho bisogno di una pillola per la nausea. (ne) __________________ 6. Giada ha comprato due creme per le mani. (ne) _______________ 7. Tu hai paura del dentista. (ne) _____________________________ 8. Avete parlato al dottore della vostra depressione? (ne) __________ Riscrivi ogni frase sostituendo la parola o le parole sottolineate con ci o ne. Ieri ci sono andato.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.2-1 Punto di partenza Although the passato prossimo and the imperfetto are both past tenses, they have distinct.
Punto di partenza Partitives express some or any; they refer to part of a whole or an undefined quantity. To form the partitive in Italian, combine the.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8A.1-1 Punto di partenza Comparatives of equality (comparativi di uguaglianza) are used to indicate that two people,
I VERBI RIFLESSIVI reflexive verbs
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.1-1 Punto di partenza Youve learned how to use the passato prossimo to express past actions. Now youll learn.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.1-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dovere (to have to/must; to owe), potere (to be able to/can), and volere (to.
5.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Sinceramente a me fa un po schifo. Adverbs.
Punto di partenza Adverbs describe how, when, and where actions take place. They modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Unlike adjectives, adverbs.
Punto di partenza In Italian, as in English, a verb is a word denoting an action or a state of being. The subject of a verb is the person or thing that.
As in English, numbers in Italian follow patterns.
1.2 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Definite and indefinite articles must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. They vary.
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-1 Punto di partenza With the exception of the imperative and the conditional, the Italian verb forms you.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.7B.2-1 Punto di partenza In Strutture 7B.1 you learned the informal imperative. Use the formal imperative to give.
7.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Conoscere and sapere Conoscere and sapere both mean to know, but they are used in different contexts.
Punto di partenza A reflexive verb “reflects” the action of the verb back to the subject. The infinitive form of reflexives ends with the reflexive pronoun.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3B.1-1 Punto di partenza You have already learned some descriptive adjectives in Lezione 1B, and in Lezione 3A.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.1B.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the verb essere with numbers to tell time.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 5A, you learned that a direct object answers the question what? or whom? An indirect object identifies to whom or for whom.
5.2 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of ci You have already learned that ci is used as a reflexive and reciprocal pronoun meaning ourselves.
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