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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-1 Punto di partenza With the exception of the imperative and the conditional, the Italian verb forms you have learned have been in the indicative mood, which is used for statements of fact and certainty. The subjunctive mood (il congiuntivo) expresses a persons emotions, opinions, desires, or subjective attitude toward events, as well as actions or states that the person views as uncertain or hypothetical.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-2 The subjunctive is usually used in complex sentences that consist of a main clause and a subordinate or dependent clause connected by che. The main clause contains a verb or expression that triggers the use of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. MAIN CLAUSEcheSUBORDINATE CLAUSE (WITH SUBJUNCTIVE) È necessario Its necessary che that Enrico sia puntuale. Enrico be on time.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-3 Many impersonal expressions trigger the use of the subjunctive. You have already learned to use impersonal expressions with an infinitive when no subject is specified. To refer to a specific subject, however, use che + [subjunctive] after an impersonal expression that conveys opinion or perception. È importante lavorare ogni giorno. Its important to work every day. È importante che io lavori ogni giorno. Its important that I work every day.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-4 To form the present subjunctive of regular verbs, use the same stem that you learned for the present indicative, including forms with -isc-, and add the subjunctive endings.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-5 The three singular forms are identical for each verb. Use subject pronouns when necessary to avoid ambiguity. È importante che (io) dorma. Its important that I sleep. Bisogna che (lei) parli forte. Its necessary that she speak loudly.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-6 È giusto che questa ragazza lavori. Its right that this girl is working. È strano che i ragazzi non lavorino. Its strange that the boys arent working. È improbabile che Michela si diverta. Its unlikely that Michela is having fun. Pare che i pensionati si divertano molto. It seems like the retirees are having a lot of fun. The loro form for all verbs can be formed by simply adding -no to the singular subjunctive form.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-7 È bene che compriamo lassicurazione. Its good that were buying insurance. È ora che la compriate anche voi. Its time that you buy it, too. The noi and voi endings are the same for all verbs. Note that the noi subjunctive and indicative forms are identical.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-8 È interessante che il giudice giochi a tennis. Its interesting that the judge plays tennis. È meglio che voi paghiate il tassista. Its better that you pay the taxi driver. Add an -h- between the stem and ending of regular verbs ending in -care or -gare to maintain the stems hard c or g sound.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-9 Bisogna che io studi per diventare uno scienziato. Its necessary that I study in order to become a scientist. Sembra che i cuochi mangino la nostra cena. It seems that the cooks are eating our dinner. Do not double the i in verbs ending in -iare.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A È necessario che Enrico (legga / legge) il libro. 2. È importante che loro (rispondono / rispondano) a quella telefonata. 3. Sembra impossibile che tu (frequenti / frequenta) già il liceo. 4. Peccato che io non (guido / guidi) ancora la macchina. 5. È giusto che i più ricchi (dividono / dividano) quello che hanno con i più poveri. 6. È difficile che Chiara (pulisca / pulisce) la sua stanza tutti i giorni. 7. È strano che loro (comprino / comprano) solo vestiti di marca. 8. È importante che tu (capisci / capisca) bene la situazione. Scegli la forma corretta del verbo per completare ogni frase.
6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive (il congiuntivo), is a grammatical mood that exists in both English and Italian to express.
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