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4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto Mimì aveva già perso i punti quando si è svegliato.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto The trapassato prossimo The trapassato prossimo indicates what someone had done or what had occurred prior to another past action, event, or state. Like the passato prossimo and other compound tenses, the trapassato prossimo is formed by combining an auxiliary verb (the imperfetto of essere or avere) with a past participle. Abbiamo detto alla polizia che avevamo visto i ladri vicino alledificio. We told the police that we had seen the thieves near the building. Eravate già andati in tribunale quando lavvocato ha chiamato. You had already gone to court when the lawyer called.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto The trapassato prossimo with ssere ero eri era andato/a caduto/a partito/a eravamo eravate rano andati/e caduti/e partiti/e The trapassato prossimo with avere avevo avevi aveva salvato combattuto finito avevamo avevate avvano
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto You will remember that transitive verbsthose that can take a direct objectrequire avere as their auxiliary. In these cases, the past participle must agree with the direct object pronoun, just as it does with the passato prossimo. Il presidente aveva proposto quelle leggi? Had the president proposed those laws? Sì, e la Camera le aveva approvate. Yes, and the House had passed them.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto Intransitive verbs, which take essere in compound tenses, often express physical movement, lack of movement, and changes in state. In the trapassato prossimo with essere, the past participle must agree with the subject of the verb. Il giudice sapeva che la testimone era già arrivata. The judge knew that the witness had already arrived.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto Reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and the verb piacere also require essere as their auxiliary in the trapassato prossimo. Again, the past participle agrees with the subject of the verb. Durante il processo tutti si erano messi a piangere perché la sentenza non era piaciuta. During the trial, all had begun to cry because they did not like the verdict.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto The trapassato prossimo expresses past events in relation to one another, indicating what had already taken place before something else happened or was going on. It is often used in clauses introduced by quando, dopo che, appena, and perché when the verb in the main clause is in the passato prossimo or the imperfetto. Use the passato prossimo to express completed events in the more recent past and the imperfetto to describe states of being, conditions, habits, or circumstances in the past. Use the trapassato prossimo to express events that occurred before another past point of reference.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto Il candidato era felice perché aveva vinto le elezioni. The candidate was happy because he had won the election. Appena era entrata la giuria, il giudice ha iniziato il processo. As soon as the jury had entered, the judge began the trial.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto The adverbs già, (non) … ancora, and (non)... mai often accompany a verb in the trapassato prossimo because this tense conveys completed events that already, had not yet, or had (n)ever taken place when another past event occurred or while a past condition existed. Avevo già saputo i risultati delle elezioni. I had already found out the election results. I politici non si erano mai dedicati alla riforma. The politicians had never dedicated themselves to reform.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto ATTENZIONE! In English, speakers often use the simple past tense to imply the past perfect tense (the trapassato prossimo). In Italian, one must use the trapassato prossimo. I politici hanno scritto ai soldati che avevano sconfitto il nemico. The politicians wrote to the soldiers who defeated (had defeated) the enemy.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto The trapassato remoto The trapassato remoto indicates what someone had done or what had occurred prior to another past action, event, or state if that action is expressed with the passato remoto instead of with the passato prossimo. The trapassato remoto is used very rarely in spoken Italian and is found primarily in literary contexts. Compare: trapassato prossimo + passato prossimo Dopo che la giuria era arrivata a un verdetto, lavvocato è entrato. After the jury had reached a verdict, the lawyer entered. trapassato remoto + passato remoto Dopo che la giuria fu arrivata a un verdetto, lavvocato entrò. After the jury had reached a verdict, the lawyer entered.
4.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto Form the trapassato remoto by combining the passato remoto of the auxiliary verb with the past participle of the main verb. The agreement rules for compound tenses apply. The trapassato remoto with ssere fui fosti fu andato/a caduto/a partito/a fummo foste frono andati/e caduti/e partiti/e The trapassato remoto with avere ebbi avesti ebbe salvato combattuto finito avemmo aveste bbero
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