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The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoMimì aveva già perso i punti quando si è svegliato. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoThe trapassato prossimo indicates what someone had done or what had occurred prior to another past action, event, or state. Like the passato prossimo and other compound tenses, the trapassato prossimo is formed by combining an auxiliary verb (the imperfetto of essere or avere) with a past participle. Abbiamo detto alla polizia che avevamo visto i ladri vicino all’edificio. We told the police that we had seen the thieves near the building. Eravate già andati in tribunale quando l’avvocato ha chiamato. You had already gone to court when the lawyer called. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 2
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoThe trapassato prossimo with avere The trapassato prossimo with ẹssere avevo avevi aveva salvato combattuto finito avevamo avevate avẹvano ero eri era andato/a caduto/a partito/a eravamo eravate ẹrano andati/e caduti/e partiti/e © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 3
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoYou will remember that transitive verbs—those that can take a direct object—require avere as their auxiliary. In these cases, the past participle must agree with the direct object pronoun, just as it does with the passato prossimo. Il presidente aveva proposto quelle leggi? Had the president proposed those laws? Sì, e la Camera le aveva approvate. Yes, and the House had passed them. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 4
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoIntransitive verbs, which take essere in compound tenses, often express physical movement, lack of movement, and changes in state. In the trapassato prossimo with essere, the past participle must agree with the subject of the verb. Il giudice sapeva che la testimone era già arrivata. The judge knew that the witness had already arrived. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 5
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoReflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and the verb piacere also require essere as their auxiliary in the trapassato prossimo. Again, the past participle agrees with the subject of the verb. Durante il processo tutti si erano messi a piangere perché la sentenza non era piaciuta. During the trial, all had begun to cry because they did not like the verdict. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoThe trapassato prossimo expresses past events in relation to one another, indicating what had already taken place before something else happened or was going on. It is often used in clauses introduced by quando, dopo che, appena, and perché when the verb in the main clause is in the passato prossimo or the imperfetto. Use the passato prossimo to express completed events in the more recent past and the imperfetto to describe states of being, conditions, habits, or circumstances in the past. Use the trapassato prossimo to express events that occurred before another past point of reference. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 7
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoIl candidato era felice perché aveva vinto le elezioni. The candidate was happy because he had won the election. Appena era entrata la giuria, il giudice ha iniziato il processo. As soon as the jury had entered, the judge began the trial. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 8
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoThe adverbs già, (non) … ancora, and (non) ... mai often accompany a verb in the trapassato prossimo because this tense conveys completed events that already, had not yet, or had (n)ever taken place when another past event occurred or while a past condition existed. Avevo già saputo i risultati delle elezioni. I had already found out the election results. I politici non si erano mai dedicati alla riforma. The politicians had never dedicated themselves to reform. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 9
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoATTENZIONE! In English, speakers often use the simple past tense to imply the past perfect tense (the trapassato prossimo). In Italian, one must use the trapassato prossimo. I politici hanno scritto ai soldati che avevano sconfitto il nemico. The politicians wrote to the soldiers who defeated (had defeated) the enemy. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoThe trapassato remoto indicates what someone had done or what had occurred prior to another past action, event, or state if that action is expressed with the passato remoto instead of with the passato prossimo. The trapassato remoto is used very rarely in spoken Italian and is found primarily in literary contexts. Compare: trapassato prossimo + passato prossimo Dopo che la giuria era arrivata a un verdetto, l’avvocato è entrato. After the jury had reached a verdict, the lawyer entered. trapassato remoto + passato remoto Dopo che la giuria fu arrivata a un verdetto, l’avvocato entrò. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 11
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remotoForm the trapassato remoto by combining the passato remoto of the auxiliary verb with the past participle of the main verb. The agreement rules for compound tenses apply. The trapassato remoto with avere The trapassato remoto with ẹssere ebbi avesti ebbe salvato combattuto finito avemmo aveste ẹbbero fui fosti fu andato/a caduto/a partito/a fummo foste fụrono andati/e caduti/e partiti/e © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 12
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-1 Punto di partenza The past conditional (il condizionale passato) is equivalent to would have talked/gone/made,
Passato Prossimo The Italian Past Tense. Quando si usa? When does one use it? Right after an action is finished (similar to English present perfect) Ho.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.1-1 Punto di partenza Youve learned how to use the passato prossimo to express past actions. Now youll learn.
7.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Conoscere and sapere Conoscere and sapere both mean to know, but they are used in different contexts.
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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.1-1 The imperfetto can be translated into English in several ways. Lia piangeva. Lia cried. Lia used to cry.
3.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The passato prossimo with avere and essere Use the passato prossimo to express an action completed in.
5.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Sinceramente a me fa un po schifo. Adverbs.
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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.7B.3-1 Punto di partenza You have already learned how to talk about the past, the present, and the future. Now.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.2-1 Punto di partenza Although the passato prossimo and the imperfetto are both past tenses, they have distinct.
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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.3-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dovere, potere, and volere have special meanings in the present and past conditional.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the adverb ci to mean there or to replace certain prepositional phrases. Use the pronoun.
3.2 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfetto Use the imperfetto to talk about what used to happen or to describe ongoing and habitual.
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