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6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3-1 The subjunctive (il congiuntivo), is a grammatical mood that exists in both English and Italian to express.

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Presentation on theme: "6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3-1 The subjunctive (il congiuntivo), is a grammatical mood that exists in both English and Italian to express."— Presentation transcript:

1 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive (il congiuntivo), is a grammatical mood that exists in both English and Italian to express attitudes or feelings such as opinion, happiness, fear, willingness, desire, obligation, necessity, or doubt. The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

2 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The present subjunctive The present subjunctive of regular verbs is formed by adding the subjunctive endings to the stem. For verbs conjugated like finire, insert –isc– as you would in the present indicative. The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

3 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The present subjunctive ascoltareprnderedormirefinire che io che tu che lui/lei/Lei che noi che voi che loro ascolti ascoltiamo ascoltiate ascltino prenda prendiamo prendiate prndano dorma dormiamo dormiate drmano finisca finiamo finiate finscano The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

4 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion ATTENZIONE! Since so many endings in the subjunctive are the same, you may need to use a subject pronoun to avoid confusion. È importante che arrivi alle nove. Its important for me/you/him/her to arrive at nine. È importante che lui arrivi alle nove. Its important for him to arrive at nine.

5 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs like cercare and pagare maintain the hard sound of the infinitive by inserting –h– between the stem and endings of all forms of the present subjunctive. cercare: cerchi, cerchi, cerchi, cerchiamo, cerchiate, c rchino pagare: paghi, paghi, paghi, paghiamo, paghiate, p ghino The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

6 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion ATTENZIONE! For other verbs ending in –iare, only one i is used unless the i is stressed. sbagliare: sbagli, sbagli, sbagli, sbagliamo, sbagliate, sbaglino sciare: sci, sci, sci, sciamo, sciate, scino

7 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Many verbs that are irregular in the indicative are also irregular in the subjunctive. andare avere bere dare dire essere fare potere rimanere sapere stare uscire venire volere vada, vada, vada, andiamo, andiate, vdano abbia, abbia, abbia, abbiamo, abbiate, bbiano beva, beva, beva, beviamo, beviate, bvano da, da, da, diamo, diate, dano dica, dica, dica, diciamo, diciate, dcano sa, sa, sa, siamo, siate, sano faccia, faccia, faccia, facciamo, facciate, fcciano possa, possa, possa, possiamo, possiate, pssano rimanga, rimanga, rimanga, rimaniamo, rimaniate, rimngano sappia, sappia, sappia, sappiamo, sappiate, sppiano sta, sta, sta, stiamo, stiate, stano esca, esca, esca, usciamo, usciate, scano venga, venga, venga, veniamo, veniate, vngano voglia, voglia, voglia, vogliamo, vogliate, vgliano The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

8 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Subjunctive with impersonal expressions, will, and emotion The subjunctive is generally used in dependent clauses introduced by che, where the subjects of the main and dependent clauses are different. The verb or verb phrase in the main clause triggers the use of the subjunctive in the clause. MAIN CLAUSE È possibile Its possible CONJUNCTION che that DEPENDENT CLAUSE Giorgio vada alla manifestazione. Giorgio is going to the demonstration. The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

9 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc ATTENZIONE! Some additional impersonal expressions followed by che and the subjunctive include: bisogna è facile/diffcile è giusto è incredbile è meglio è necessario è ora (è un) peccato è (im)possbile è raro/strano è (in)tile occorre pare sembra vale la pena The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion

10 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Use the subjunctive in clauses introduced by impersonal expressions that state an opinion. The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion Impersonal expressions followed by the subjunctive è bene/male che... it is good/bad that… è diffcile che... it is difficult/unlikely that… è importante che... it is important that… è possbile che... it is (not) possible that… è probbile che... it is likely that… è strano che... it is strange that… può darsi che... it is possible that… si dice che... it is said/they say that… È strano che Salvatore vada alla sinagoga: è cattolico! Its strange that Salvatore is going to the synagogue; hes Catholic! Può darsi che il telefonino sia spento. Its possible that the cell phone is off.

11 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion ATTENZIONE! Not all clauses introduced by che require use of the subjunctive. Verbs and expressions indicating certainty or fact are followed by the indicative. Sanno che Rita viene domani. They know that Rita is coming tomorrow. È vero che Massimo fa lo scrittore. Its true that Massimo is a writer.

12 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion Use the subjunctive in subordinate clauses when the verb in the main clause expresses opinion, will, or emotion. Expressions of willExpressions of emotion and opinion desiderare… to desire… esgere… to require… insstere… to insist… permttere… to allow… preferire… to prefer… ritenere… to maintain… suggerire… to suggest… volere… to want… avere para… to be afraid… credere... to believe... dispiacere… to be sorry… ssere + [emotion] felice/contento/a… to be happy… sorpreso/a… to be surprised… pensare... to think... piacere… to be pleased, to like… sperare… to hope… temere… to fear, to be afraid…

13 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion Loro desiderano che Chiara gli dica la verità. They want Chiara to tell him the truth. Temo che questo libro non sia più disponibile. I am afraid that this book is no longer available.

14 6.3 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive: impersonal expressions; will and emotion ATTENZIONE! If the subject of the main clause and the dependent clause is the same, use an infinitive instead of the subjunctive in the dependent clause. Gianni vuole che tu finisca la lettera. Gianni wants you to finish the letter. Gianni vuole finire la lettera. Gianni wants to finish the letter.


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