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1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-1 Il treno parte dal binario 9. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-2 Subject pronouns In Italian, the subject pronouns are: 1st person2nd person 3rd person Singulario I tu/Lei you/you (formal) lui lei he she Plural noi we voi/Loro you/you (formal) loro they (m./f.) The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-3 ATTENZIONE! Some pronouns have formal equivalents. Egli and ella are formal, literary forms for lui and lei. They are rarely used in conversation. Esso and essa (it) usually refer to animals and things, but essi and esse (they) can refer to people, in addition to animals or things. Note that these forms are rarely used in conversational Italian. Cerco la mia gatta, ma essa non è qui. Im looking for my cat, but shes not here. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-4 Italian subject pronouns are used much less frequently than their English counterparts because the verb form usually identifies the subject. Mangiamo spesso al ristorante. We eat often at the restaurant. Abiti ancora a Roma? Do you still live in Rome? The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-5 Subject pronouns add emphasis with words such as neanche, soltanto, and anche; they also add emphasis when placed after the verb. Before the verb, subject pronouns prevent ambiguity or contrast subjects. È lei che odia la pizza. Shes the one who hates pizza. Neanche noi siamo sposati. We arent married either. Lui ha un fratello e lei ha una sorella. He has a brother and she has a sister. Anche tu puoi venire alla festa. You can also come to the party. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-6 The present tense: regular verbs ATTENZIONE! Be careful not to confuse lei and loro with the second person, formal pronouns Lei and Loro. In this text, the formal pronouns will be capitalized as a visual hint.
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-7 Use Lei and Loro to address people formally. Voi, rather than Loro, is typically used for both the formal and informal second person plural, especially in speaking. That style will be followed in this book. Buonasera, signori, Loro desiderano? Good evening, ladies and gentlemen, what would you like? Ehi, ragazzi, dove andate voi? Hey, guys, where are you going? The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-8 The present tense The present indicative tense expresses actions and circumstances in the present. It has three equivalents in English. canto I sing I am singing I do sing The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-9 ATTENZIONE! In Italian, you may also use the present indicative to talk about an action that will happen in the immediate future. Stasera Enrico esce con Rosa. Tonight Enrico is going to go out with Rosa. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-10 To form the present indicative of the three regular verb conjugations, drop the ending of the infinitive (–are, –ere, or –ire) and add the appropriate endings to the stem. adorareprnderedormirecapire io tu lui/lei/Lei noi voi loro/Loro adoro adori adora adoriamo adorate adrano prendo prendi prende prendiamo prendete prndono dormo dormi dorme dormiamo dormite drmono capisco capisci capisce capiamo capite capscono The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-11 There are two types of –ire verbs. Verbs conjugated like capire insert -isc- between the stem and the ending of all forms except the first and second person plural. Verbs conjugated like dormire do not require insertion of -isc-. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-12 Most –ire verbs that do not require insertion of -isc- have a consonant five letters from the end of the infinitive: aprire, coprire, dormire, offrire, partire, scoprire, seguire, sentire, servire, soffrire, etc. The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-13 Spelling changes are required in the present indicative of some –are verbs. To avoid a double i, drop the i of the tu and noi stems of most verbs ending in -iare. cominciare cambiare lasciare sbagliare studiare cominci + i/iamo cambi + i/iamo lasci + i/iamo sbagli + i/iamo studi + i/iamo cominci (tu) / cominciamo (noi) cambi (tu) / cambiamo (noi) lasci (tu) / lasciamo (noi) sbagli (tu) / sbagliamo (noi) studi (tu) / studiamo (noi) The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-14 When the i of the stem is stressed in the first person of the present indicative, in verbs ending in –iare like inviare and sciare, do not drop the i of the stem in the tu form. sciare inviare sco (io) invo (io) sci (tu) invi (tu) The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-15 Add an h to the tu and noi forms of verbs ending in –care and –gare to maintain the hard sound of the c and g. cercare spiegare cerch + i/iamo spiegh + i/iamo cerchi (tu) / cerchiamo (noi) spieghi (tu) / spieghiamo (noi) The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-16 ATTENZIONE! Verbs with a root ending in –gn such as guadagnare (to earn), insegnare (to teach), and sognare (to dream) can be spelled with or without the i in the first person plural. guadagniamo or guadagnamo sogniamo or sognamo The present tense: regular verbs
1.1 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 1.1-17 Use the simple present tense for ongoing actions that began in the past. Use da (for; since) to indicate when the action first began. Use da quando or da quanto tempo when asking How long? or Since when? Da quanto tempo sei fidanzata? How long have you been engaged? Sono fidanzata da sei mesi. Ive been engaged for six months. Da quando escono insieme Mario e Carla? Since when have Mario and Carla been going out? Escono insieme dal mese scorso. Theyve been dating since last month. The present tense: regular verbs
In order to talk about activities, you need to use verbs
I Verbi di ARE Conjugating regular verbs that end in ARE.
In English and Spanish, the infinitive is the base form of the verb.
Il presente l.o to recognise that a verb conjugates with 6 endings.
I Verbi Italiani – Italian verbs
5.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Sinceramente a me fa un po schifo. Adverbs.
Punto di partenza In Italian, as in English, a verb is a word denoting an action or a state of being. The subject of a verb is the person or thing that.
Punto di partenza Adjectives are words that describe people, places, and things. In Italian, adjectives are often used with the verb essere to point out.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-1 Punto di partenza With the exception of the imperative and the conditional, the Italian verb forms you.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.7B.2-1 Punto di partenza In Strutture 7B.1 you learned the informal imperative. Use the formal imperative to give.
Punto di partenza A reflexive verb “reflects” the action of the verb back to the subject. The infinitive form of reflexives ends with the reflexive pronoun.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 5A, you learned that a direct object answers the question what? or whom? An indirect object identifies to whom or for whom.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3A.3-1 Punto di partenza You are already familiar with Italian verbs that end in -are and -ere. The third class.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 1A you learned the numbers 0–100. The chart below shows numbers above one hundred. © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 2A, you learned how to form the present tense of -are verbs by attaching different endings to the stem. Conjugate regular.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.2-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dire (to say; to tell), uscire (to go out; to leave), and venire (to come) are.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.2A.2-1 Punto di partenza The verbs andare (to go), dare (to give), fare (to do; to make), and stare (to be; to.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3B.2-1 Punto di partenza In Lezione 1B, you learned how to form yes-or-no questions and questions with interrogative.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.3-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dovere, potere, and volere have special meanings in the present and past conditional.
Ripasso di captitolo 6 Il passato prossimo. Come si dice…? Yesterdayieri The day before yesterday Laltro ieri Last week La settimana scorsa (passata)
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