We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byErin Fraser
Modified over 3 years ago
Theory and Politics of External Citizenship Rainer Bauböck 2 nd EUDO Citizenship Plenary Conference 21-22 January 2010 University of Edinburgh © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Diaspora and Transnationalism Studies political relations of ethnic groups with external homelands or kin states mostly focus on transnationalism from below recently homeland states also seen as actors reaching out to or building diasporas – L. Brand: state efforts to control and instrumentalise citizens abroad – A. Gamlen: two types of policies in emigration states: diaspora building and diaspora integration (through legal rights and duties) target populations for external membership policies are often not only diasporas or transmigrants © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Defining external citizenship The legal status, rights and duties of citizenship attributed by a state to individuals located temporarily or permanently outside its territory – citizenship in broader sense: legal status, rights and duties – two criteria for externality: presence or residence (short-term absentees and long-term residents abroad) – presence criterion creates dichotomous distinction residence criterion not strictly dichotomous (multiple residence possible) External citizenship rights – generally recognized core rights attached to citizenship status: right to return and to diplomatic protection – differentiated across states and target groups: voting rights, cultural and social benefits (expansive trend) External citizenship duties and liabilities – no universal core duties – differentiated across states and target groups: taxation, military service, extradition, legal duties to family members… © Rainer Bauböck 2010
External quasi-citizenship substitute for full citizenship introduced because either C1 or C3 not willing to accept dual citizenship including (limited) right to return, inheritance, real estate property in homeland, cultural and social benefits abroad examples: Hungarian, Polish, Slovene, Slovak Status Laws, Turkish pink/blue card, Indian overseas citizenship the converse of denizenship – external quasi-citizens: + domestic citizens of their country of residence legal status (often) after loss of citizenship (by TP or RP) – denizens: + external citizens of another country legal status before (or as alternative to) acquisition for citizenship © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Allocation of external citizenship status EUDO Citizenship focus on change or maintenance of external citizenship status generally concerns only long-term residents abroad indicators for external expansiveness of citizenship status: absence of legal obstacles to external citizenship retention or acquisition and presence of obstacles to renunciation likely to maximize numbers of external citizens relative to a given demographic pattern (of emigration or external kin populations) (depending also on relative value of a particular countrys citizenship) extent to which – it is easy to retain/reacquire abroad – it is difficult to renounce – it is easy to inherit – ethnic affinities provide access could be measured by index similar to citizenship inclusion indices (Waldrauch, Howard, Goodman-Wallace) © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Structuring the comparative analysis avoid duplication with comparative reports on relevant modes of acquisition and loss focus on relation between C1 and individuals located outside of C1 – e.g. withdrawal when acquiring another citizenship in C3 do not include the role of external citizenship (of C3) for domestic acquisition and loss in C1 – e.g. renunciation requirement in naturalisation in C1 alternative ways of structuring analysis and grouping countries by rules (combination of modes of acquisition and loss) by groups of persons (generation and country of birth) © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Linking Modes of Acquisition and Loss (table compiled by Maarten Vink) © Rainer Bauböck 2010
An index of external expansiveness expansive = absence of legal obstacles to external citizenship retention or acquisition. likely to maximize numbers of external citizens relative to a given demographic pattern (of emigration or external kin populations) (depending also on relative value of a particular countrys citizenship) maximally expansive (0 obstacles): 10 (BUL, GRE, HUN, ITA, MOL, POL, ROM, SLK, TUR, LUX) strongly expansive (0.5 - 1 obstacles): 14 (AUT, CZE, EST, LIT) (CRO, CYP, SLN, UK, POR) (FIN, ICE, SWE, SWI, FRA) weakly expansive (1.2 – 2 obstacles): 8 (MAL, BEL) (IRE) (LAT, GER) (NOR) (NET, SPA) least expansive (2.5 – 3 obstacles): 1 (DEN) index can be correlated with inclusion indicators or with strength of external citizenship rights – odd combinations: non-expansive but strong (US), expansive but weak (Greece) – possible explanatory variables? © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Structure by target groups / generations analyse characteristic citizenship status transitions for persons residing abroad – born in C1 as citizen of C1 (first generation external citizens) – born in C3 as citizens of C1 (later generation external citizens) – born in C3 as citizens of C3 (external acquisition for non-citizens) © Rainer Bauböck 2010
First generation external citizens 1.Renunciation by long-term residents in C3 who acquire C3 citizenship (L01) – no unfulfilled legal duties in C1? – different treatment? (for citizens by birth or naturalisation, co-ethnic citizens) 2.Withdrawal because of acquisition of another citizenship (L05) – only if residence abroad or also for residents in C1? – different treatment (no withdrawal for citizens of C2?) 3.Withdrawal because of long-term residence in C3 (L02) – only if another citizenship has already been acquired? – relevant time of residence abroad? – different treatment? (not for residents of C2?) 4.Reacquisition abroad after renunciation or withdrawal (A21) – restitution after change of political regime or citizenship law? e.g. move towards toleration of dual citizenship? for renunciation: in C3, for withdrawal: in C1 – different treatment (only for co-ethnics, citizens by birth, citizens of C2)? – include here also reacquisition by later generations © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Later generation external citizens 5.Acquisition at birth abroad (external ius sanguinis) (A01) – registration after birth (time limit)? – special conditions if only one parent is citizen of C1 (esp. for children born out of wedlock) – generational limits? 2 nd generation only (one parent born in C1) 2 nd + 3 rd generation only (one grandparent born in C1) 6.Withdrawal after acquisition at birth in C3 (L02, L06) – condition of application for retention – condition of return to C1 only for 3 rd or later generation or also for 2 nd generation? age threshold: return before certain age? long-term residence in C1 required? © Rainer Bauböck 2010
External acquisition by non-citizens 7.Family-based acquisition abroad (A08-A15) – spousal or filial transfer or extension residence of RP in C1 required? conditional upon subsequent residence of TP in C1? 8.Affinity-based acquisition abroad (A19) – residence in C1 not (always) required in BUL, GRE, IRE, ITA, LIT, POR, SLN, SPA – citizenship-based descendant from (former) citizens? – culturally-based co-ethnic or linguistic identity, how established? 9.Special merits or investments (A26) – subsequent residence requirement in C1? © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Why study external citizenship? to understand migrants status choices and impact of state- imposed status change on overall legal equality within a polity – external citizenship is one element of compound citizenship statuses because external citizenship preserves or widens individual migration opportunities – and in case of multiple citizenship creates individual spaces of international free movement because over-expansive external citizenship creates problems – in external homeland through overrepresentation of non- stakeholders in domestic politics (external voting) – in country of residence through weakening domestic integration, especially where kin minorities are involved – in European Union because of external access to EU citizenship and free movement rights in all member states © Rainer Bauböck 2010
Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches Maarten Vink ICS-UL ENCONTRO COM A CIÊNCIA 2009 Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 29 e 30.
Legal obstacles and opportunities for access to citizenship Rainer Bauböck (EUI) and Kristen Jeffers (UCD) Co-financed by the European Fund for the Integration.
Comparing Naturalisation Policies in Europe Rainer Bauböck European University Institute, Florence Naturalisation and the Socio-Economic Integration of.
Michal Radvan Tax on Property Transfers Michal Radvan.
Nationality and (in) migration ENAR Policy Seminar Brussels,
What is the link between citizenship and other integration policies in EU? Thomas Huddleston (MPG) Co-financed by the European Fund for the Integration.
International standards for the acquisition of nationality by immigrants and their descendants Jan Niessen (MPG) Co-financed by the European Fund for the.
Key findings for Bulgaria. Tool to compare, analyse, and improve integration policy Do all residents have equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities.
15-May-09 Core variables in social surveys Citizenship and Country of birth Eurostat F-1: Population Anne Herm.
Access to Citizenship & Its Impact on Immigrant Integration Preliminary Results for Spain December 14, 2012 Barcelona Center for International Affairs.
Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Results for Portugal 28 January 2012 Professor Maarten Vink University of Maastricht.
Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Developing Countries : How the ITA can help Bruno Lanvin, the World Bank WTO, Geneva – 18 October 04.
University ”Ss Cyril and Methodius” in Skopje INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS Emigration of Macedonia to Switzerland – changes and current situation Verica Janeska.
Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Results for Italy 31 January 2012 Thomas Huddleston Migration Policy Group Oriane Calligaro.
Migration statistics and the movement of natural persons under GATS mode 4 Georges Lemaitre 15 September 2004.
The measures of immigration in Italy, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain.
© Rainer Bauböck1 Diversity and Integration Rainer Bauböck Austrian Academy of Sciences Research Unit for Institutional Change and European Integration.
Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Results for Hungary 24 January 2012 Thomas Huddleston Migration Policy Group Costica.
Cultural Dynamics. National Differences in Culture F What is CULTURE? –shared system of values and norms that offer a design for living u Values: abstract.
American Citizens and Political Culture Chapter 1.
Civil Registration Protecting Refugees and IDPs Preventing Statelessness 7 th Annual Symposia on Statistical Development (ASSD) Cape Town, South Africa.
Right to Citizenship in Seccession A Case Study of the Scottish Referendum.
Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Results for Germany 22 January 2012 Prof. Dr. Gerard-René de Groot University of Maastricht.
Key findings for Greece. Tool to compare, analyse, and improve integration policy Do all residents have equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities.
Ameri-can-adians: Demography and Identity of Borderline Canadians and Americans Jack Jedwab and Susan W. Hardwick.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION DATA as input for population projections Anne HERM and Michel POULAIN Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, Estonia.
American Citizens and Political Culture Chapter 2.
Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity Ch 22: Western Europe By Andree Tabouret-Keller.
GLOBALISATION AND CITIZENSHIP. Nation-state/citizenship T.H. Marshall – political, civil, social Political community Rights Boundaries Identity Nation-state/system.
DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT: THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION (The Seventh Valenteevskiye Chteniya) November 2012 Lomonosov Moscow State University The.
OAS Course on Statelessness: S tatelessness & International Law Laura van Waas - Statelessness Programme -
1 Essentials of Migration Management for Policy Makers and Practitioners Section 1.4 Authority and Responsibility of States.
Citizenship Acquisition in the United States of America Ather H. Akbari (Saint Marys University & Atlantic Metropolis Centre)
Contents Who is behind MIPEX Objectives Production and Producers MIPEX is a tool among others Underpinning framework Relevance Presentation and Users.
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON1 CIVICS IN PRACTICE HOLT Chapter 1 We the People Section 1: Civics in Our Lives Civics in Our LivesCivics in Our Lives Section.
ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP. SECTION 1.The following are citizens of the Philippines: (1)Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption.
Maltese Citizenship. Legislation Constitution of Malta - Chapter 3 Maltese Citizenship Act (Cap 188)
CIVICS/CITIZENSHIP. What are civics? The study or science of the privileges and obligations of citizens.
Italian results in their European context: Citizenship reform.
Citizenship Naturalized vs Natural Born Citizen Natural Born Citizen Anyone born on U.S. soil, territory, protectorate, military base, or embassy grounds.
Discrimination and victimisation challenges for migrant integration ‘Integration is a dynamic, two-way process of mutual interaction requiring a greater.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Statistical Division Migration stocks and flows: Basic concepts and definitions in the International recommendations.
Citizen citizen: a person who possesses certain rights and duties to a government.
International Law: Summary of Unit 2 Fall 2006 Mr. Morrison.
Tax Reform: An International Perspective OECD-IEF seminar on Tax Reform Trends Madrid May, 16, 2005 By Jeffrey Owens Organisation for Economic Cooperation.
Survey on integration of migrants and their descendants « Life histories and family origins »
Social Statistics Department Population and Demography Group–Population and Migration Team PRIME MINISTRY REPUBLIC OF TURKEY TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE.
For use with Keeping the Republic. Copyright © 2006 by CQ Press. American Citizens and Political Culture Chapter 2.
Immigration in France BY: NICK KLEIN. Post World War ll France received a large influx of immigrants during reconstruction following the Second World.
Ethnic groups An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.