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Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator Lattice Electrical environment Electron system G Cooling.

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Presentation on theme: "Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator Lattice Electrical environment Electron system G Cooling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator Lattice Electrical environment Electron system G Cooling

2 NIS junction as a refrigerator Optimum cooling power is reached at V C 2 /e: Cooling power of a NIS junction: Temperature T N on the island is determined by the balance of heat fluxes, e.g.: Electron-phonon heat flux: (dominates at high temperatures, negligible at low temperatures) Optimum cooling power per junction, when superconducting reservoirs are not overheated, T S << T C Efficiency (coefficient of performance) of a NIS junction refrigerator:

3 Experimental status A. Clark et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005). A. Luukanen et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 120, 281 (2000). Refrigeration of a membrane with separate thermometer Refrigeration of a bulk object Nahum, Eiles, Martinis 1994 Demonstration of NIS cooling Leivo, Pekola, Averin 1996, Kuzmin 2003, Rajauria et al Cooling electrons 300 mK -> 100 mK by SINIS Manninen et al Cooling by SISIS see also Chi and Clarke 1979 and Blamire et al. 1991, Tirelli, Giazotto et al Manninen et al. 1997, Luukanen et al Lattice (membrane) refrigeration by SINIS Savin et al S – Schottky – Semic – Schottky – S cooling Clark et al. 2005, Miller et al x-ray detector refrigerated by SINIS For a review, see Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 217 (2006).

4 Done Robust, wafer-scale solid- state refrigerators 1 st cooling of bulk material 1 st integrated NIS-cooled detectors –mm bolometer (Goddard) –X-ray microcalorimeter Spectra above T c Future (someone else) Improve cooling – mK Cooling platform for general payloads –Attach your own detector chip NIST

5 Now: Temperature reduction (electrons): 300 mK -> 50 mK Temperature reduction (lattice): 200 mK -> 100 mK Cooling power: 30 pW at 100 mK by one junction pair Objectives (NanoFridge, EPSRC, Microkelvin): Electron cooling from 300 mK -> 10 mK Cooled platform for nanosamples: 300 mK -> 50 mK, cooling power 10 nW at 100 mK by an array of junctions Cooler from 1.5 K down to 300 mK using higher Tc superconductor Experiments in progress at TKK: Thermodynamic cycles with electrons: utilizing Coulomb blockade, heat pump with P = k B T f (proposal 2007) Refrigeration at the quantum limit (Meschke et al., Nature 2006, Timofeev et al. 2009, unpublished) Brownian refrigerator, Maxwells demon (proposal 2007) Cooling mechanical modes in suspended structures, i.e., nanomechanics combined with electronic refrigeration (Preliminary experiment, Muhonen et al. and Koppinen et al. 2009) Specifications, objectives

6 JRA2 Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator TKK, CNRS, RHUL, SNS, BASEL, DELFT Objectives Thermalizing and filtering electrons in nanodevices To develop an electronic nano-refrigerator that is able to reach sub-10 mK electronic temperatures To develop an electronic microrefrigerator for cooling galvanically isolated nanosamples

7 Roles of the participants TKK and CNRS will develop the nanorefrigeration by superconducting tunnel junctions SNS will build coolers based on semiconducting electron gas BASEL will work mainly on very low temperature thermalization and filtering DELFT and RHUL are mainly end users of the nano-coolers

8 Task 1: Thermalizing electrons in nanorefrigerators (TKK, CNRS, BASEL) Ex-chip filtering: Sintered heat exchangers in a 3He cell Lossy coaxes/strip lines, powder filters,... On-chip filtering: Lithographic resistive lines SQUID-arrays W. Pan et al., PRL 83, 3530 (1999) A. Savin et al., APL 91,

9 Task 2: Microkelvin nanocooler (TKK, CNRS, SNS) Aim is to develop sub - 10 mK electronic cooler Normal metal – superconductor tunnel junctions-based optimized coolers (TKK, CNRS, DELFT) 10 mK to lower T: Improved quality of tunnel junctions Thermometry at low T? Lower Tc superconductor Quasiparticle relaxation studies in sc and trapping of qp:s Quantum dot cooler (SNS)

10 Thermometry at low T SNS Josephson junction

11 Task 3: Development of a 100 mK, robust, electronically-cooled platform based on a 300 mK 3He bath (TKK, CNRS, RHUL, DELFT) Commercial, robust SiN membranes (and custom made alumina) as platforms (TKK) Epitaxial large area junctions (CNRS) Optimized junctions (e-beam and mechanical masks) RHUL and DELFT use these coolers for experiments on quantum devices

12 Deliverables Task 1 D1: Analysis of combined ex-chip and on-chip filter performance (18) D2: Demonstration of sub-10 mK electronic bath temperature of a nano- electronic tunnel junction device achieved by the developed filtering strategy (30) Task 2 D3: Analysis of sub-10 mK nano-cooling techniques including (i) traditional N-I- S cooler with low Tc, (ii) quantum dot cooler (24) D4: Demonstration of sub-10 mK nanocooling with a N-I-S junction (48) Task 3 D5: Demonstration of 300 mK to about 50 mK cooling of a dielectric platform (36) D6: Demonstration of cooling-based improved sensitivity of a quantum detector (48)

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