Presentation on theme: "Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator CoolingGnElectronsystemElectricalenvironmentLattice
2 NIS junction as a refrigerator Cooling power of a NIS junction:Optimum cooling power is reached at VC 2D/e:Optimum cooling power per junction, when superconducting reservoirs are not overheated, TS << TCTemperature TN on the island is determined by the balance of heat fluxes, e.g.:Electron-phonon heat flux:(dominates at high temperatures, negligible at low temperatures)Efficiency (coefficient of performance) of a NIS junction refrigerator:
3 Experimental statusNahum, Eiles, Martinis 1994 Demonstration of NIS coolingLeivo, Pekola, Averin 1996, Kuzmin 2003, Rajauria et al Cooling electrons 300 mK -> 100 mK by SINISManninen et al Cooling by SIS’IS see also Chi and Clarke 1979 and Blamire et al. 1991, Tirelli, Giazotto et al. 2008Manninen et al. 1997, Luukanen et al Lattice (membrane) refrigeration by SINISSavin et al S – Schottky – Semic – Schottky – S coolingClark et al. 2005, Miller et al x-ray detector refrigerated by SINISRefrigeration of a membrane with separate thermometerRefrigeration of a ”bulk” objectA. Clark et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).A. Luukanen et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 120, 281 (2000).For a review, see Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 217 (2006).
4 NIST 2007-08 Done Robust, wafer-scale solid-state refrigerators 1st cooling of bulk material1st integrated NIS-cooled detectorsmm bolometer (Goddard)X-ray microcalorimeterSpectra above TcFuture (someone else)Improve cooling300 100 mKCooling platform for general payloadsAttach your own detector chip
5 Specifications, objectives Now:Temperature reduction (electrons): 300 mK -> 50 mKTemperature reduction (lattice): 200 mK -> 100 mKCooling power: 30 pW at 100 mK by one junction pairObjectives (NanoFridge, EPSRC, Microkelvin):Electron cooling from 300 mK -> 10 mKCooled platform for nanosamples: 300 mK -> 50 mK, cooling power 10 nW at 100 mK by an array of junctionsCooler from 1.5 K down to 300 mK using higher Tc superconductorExperiments in progress at TKK:Thermodynamic cycles with electrons: utilizing Coulomb blockade, heat pump with P = kBT f (proposal 2007)Refrigeration at the quantum limit (Meschke et al., Nature 2006, Timofeev et al. 2009, unpublished)Brownian refrigerator, Maxwell’s demon (proposal 2007)Cooling mechanical modes in suspended structures, i.e., nanomechanics combined with electronic refrigeration (Preliminary experiment, Muhonen et al. and Koppinen et al. 2009)
6 JRA2 Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator TKK, CNRS, RHUL, SNS, BASEL, DELFT ObjectivesThermalizing and filtering electrons in nanodevicesTo develop an electronic nano-refrigerator that is able to reach sub-10 mK electronic temperaturesTo develop an electronic microrefrigerator for cooling galvanically isolated nanosamples
7 Roles of the participants TKK and CNRS will develop the nanorefrigeration by superconducting tunnel junctionsSNS will build coolers based on semiconducting electron gasBASEL will work mainly on very low temperature thermalization and filtering DELFT and RHUL are mainly end users of the nano-coolers
8 Task 1: Thermalizing electrons in nanorefrigerators (TKK, CNRS, BASEL) Ex-chip filtering:Sintered heat exchangers in a 3He cellLossy coaxes/strip lines, powder filters, ...On-chip filtering:Lithographic resistive linesSQUID-arraysW. Pan et al., PRL 83, 3530 (1999)A. Savin et al., APL 91,
9 Task 2: Microkelvin nanocooler (TKK, CNRS, SNS) Aim is to develop sub - 10 mK electronic coolerNormal metal – superconductor tunnel junctions-based optimized coolers (TKK, CNRS, DELFT)10 mK to lower T:Improved quality of tunnel junctionsThermometry at low T?Lower Tc superconductorQuasiparticle relaxation studies in sc and trapping of qp:sQuantum dot cooler (SNS)
11 Task 3: Development of a 100 mK, robust, electronically-cooled platform based on a 300 mK 3He bath (TKK, CNRS, RHUL, DELFT)Commercial, robust SiN membranes (and custom made alumina) as platforms (TKK)Epitaxial large area junctions (CNRS)Optimized junctions (e-beam and mechanical masks)RHUL and DELFT use these coolers for experiments on quantum devices
12 DeliverablesTask 1D1: Analysis of combined ex-chip and on-chip filter performance (18)D2: Demonstration of sub-10 mK electronic bath temperature of a nano-electronic tunnel junction device achieved by the developed filtering strategy (30)Task 2D3: Analysis of sub-10 mK nano-cooling techniques including (i) traditional N-I-S cooler with low Tc, (ii) quantum dot cooler (24)D4: Demonstration of sub-10 mK nanocooling with a N-I-S junction (48)Task 3D5: Demonstration of 300 mK to about 50 mK cooling of a dielectric platform (36)D6: Demonstration of cooling-based improved sensitivity of a quantum detector (48)
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