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International Marketing Chapters 14

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Presentation on theme: "International Marketing Chapters 14"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Marketing Chapters 14
International Marketing Channels

2 Introduction Getting the product to the target market can be a costly process Forging an aggressive and reliable channel of distribution may be the most critical and challenging task facing the international firms Each market contains a distribution network with many channel choices. In some markets the distribution structure is multi-layered, complex, inefficient, even strange Competitive advantage will reside with the marketer best able to build the most efficient channel

3 Channel-of-Distribution Structures
The distribution process includes the physical handling and distribution of goods, the passage of ownership (title), and the buying and selling negotiations between producers and middlemen and between middlemen and customers Each country market has a distribution structure through which goods pass from producer to use Within this structure are a variety of middlemen whose customary functions, activities, and services reflect existing competition, market characteristics, tradition, and economic development Channel structures range from those with little developed marketing infrastructure such as those found in many emerging markets (import oriented distribution) to the highly complex, multi-layered system found in Japan and the mass marketing distribution system of the US.

4 Japanese Distribution Structure
Distribution in Japan has long been considered the most effective non-tariff barrier to the Japanese market The Japanese distribution structure is different enough from its U.S. or European counterparts It has four distinguishing features: a structure dominated by many small middlemen dealing with many small retailers—high density of middlemen, channel control by manufacturers, a business philosophy shaped by a unique culture, and laws that protect the foundation of the system—the small retailer

5 Distribution Systems: Japan and the US

6 A Comparison of Retail Structures

7 Channel Control in Japanese Distribution Systems
Control is maintained through the following elements: Inventory financing with credits extending for several months. Cumulative rebates Merchandise returns that are allowed to the manufacturer. Promotional support to intermediaries in the form of displays, advertising layouts, and management education programs

8 Distribution Patterns
Distribution patterns are always evolving and new patterns are developing and marketing channels are not the same throughout the world Some general distribution patterns that are similar globally include: Middlemen Services Product Line Breadth Costs and Margins Channel Length Nonexistent Channels Blocked Channels Stocking Power and Competition

9 Retail Patterns International retailing shows even greater diversity in its structure than does wholesaling Some general retailing patterns include: Retail Size Patterns Direct Marketing Resistance to Change Alternative Middleman Choices

10 Retail Comparisons

11 Home-Country Middlemen
Home-country middlemen, or domestic middlemen, provide marketing services from a domestic base and find foreign markets for products for local manufacturers Frequently used types of domestic intermediaries include: Manufacturers’ Retail Stores Global Retailers Export Management Companies Trading Companies U.S. Export Trading Companies Complementary Marketers Manufacturer’s Export Agent 8. Home-Country Brokers 9. Buying Offices 10. Selling Groups 11. Webb-Pomerene Export Associations 12. Foreign Sales Corporation 13. Export Merchants 14. Export Jobbers

12 Export Management Company

13 Foreign-Country Middlemen
Some of the more important foreign-country middlemen, who find markets for foreign manufacturers include: Manufacturer’s Representatives Distributors Foreign-Country Brokers Managing Agents and Compradors Dealers Import Jobbers, Wholesalers, and Retailers

14 Factors Affecting Choice of Channels
The following points should be addressed prior to selecting intermediaries: Identify specific target markets within and across countries. Specify marketing goals in terms of volume, market share, and profit margin requirements. Specify financial and personnel commitments to the development of international distribution. Identify control, length of channels, terms of sale, and channel ownership

15 Six Cs of Channel Strategy
Channel strategy itself is considered to have the following six specific strategic goals: Cost Capital Requirements Control Coverage Character Continuity

16 Locating Middlemen Firms seeking overseas representation should compile a list of middlemen from such sources as the following: Commercially published directories Foreign consulates Chamber-of-commerce groups located abroad Other manufacturers producing similar but noncompetitive goods Middlemen associations Business publications Management consultants U.S. Department of Commerce

17 Selecting Middlemen Screening based on the following criteria:
In selecting middlemen, the following steps should be used. Screening based on the following criteria: (a) reputation (b) creditworthiness (c) markets served (d) products carried (e) number of stores (f) store size 2. The Agreement that details terms of the contract and the functions to be performed on behalf of the foreign manufacturer

18 Motivating Middlemen Motivational techniques may be grouped into
There is a clear correlation between the middleman’s motivation and sales volume Motivational techniques may be grouped into five categories: (1) financial rewards (2) psychological rewards (3) communications (4) company support, and (5) corporate rapport

19 The Internet E-commerce is used to market business-to-business services, consumer services, and consumer and industrial products via the World Wide Web The Internet is an important distribution method for multinational companies When using the internet for distribution purposes, the following factors should be considered: Culture Adaptation (especially of language) Local contact information Payment form Delivery Promotion

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