Learning Objectives Explain the need for management accounting information. Explain the differences between management accounting and financial accounting.
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1 Learning ObjectivesExplain the need for management accounting information.Explain the differences between management accounting and financial accounting.Provide a brief historical description of management accounting.Identify and explain the emerging themes of management accounting.Describe the role of management accountants in an organization.
2 Learning Objectives (continued) Explain the importance of ethical behaviour for managers and management accountants.Identify the three forms of certification available to management accountants.
3 Management Accounting Information Systems Special ReportsProduct CostsCustomer CostsPerformance ReportsPersonal CommunicationCollectingMeasuringStoringAnalyzingReportingManagingEconomic EventsInputsProcessesOutputsUsers
4 The Management Process The Management Process is defined by the following activities:PlanningControllingDecision making
5 The Management Process (continued) Planning requires setting objectives and identifying methods to achieve those objectives.
6 The Management Process (continued) Controlling is the managerial activity of monitoring a plan’s implementation and taking corrective action as needed.Control is usually achieved with the use of feedback, which is information that can be used to evaluate or correct the steps being taken to implement a plan.
7 The Management Process (continued) Decision making is the process of choosing among competing alternatives.
8 Conceptual Framework of Management Accounting Cost Accounting Systems (Part I of Text)‘Know your costs’The how to of ‘cost accumulation & allocation’Managerial Decision Making (Part II of Text)‘What difference will it make’ when a choice is to be made between alternative courses of action?We assume economically-rational organizations and de-emphasize the role of individual decision-makersPlanning & Control Systems (Part III of Text)Focus on how organizations run by delegation & accountabilityInformation asymmetry (subordinate knows what superior does not know) results in problems of harmony of objectives. We assume economically rational decision makers who have their own goals within the organization
9 Comparison of Management and Financial Accounting Management Accounting Financial Accounting1. Internal focus2. No mandatory rules3. Financial and nonfinancial information; subjective information possible4. Emphasis on the future5. Internal evaluation and decisions based on detailedinformation6. Broad, multidisciplinary1. External focus2. Externally imposed rules3. Objective financial information4. Historical orientation5. Information about the firm as a whole6. More self-contained
10 Historical Description of Management Accounting Most of the product-costing and internal accounting procedures used in this century were developed1925 Emphasis of inventory costing for external reporting1950s/60s Effort to improve the managerial usefulness of traditional cost systems1980s/90s Significant efforts have been made to radically change the nature and practice of management accounting
11 Emerging Themes of Management Accounting Activity-Based ManagementCustomer OrientationCross-Functional PerspectiveTotal Quality ManagementTime as a Competitive ElementEfficiency
12 Most Innovative in Management? Comment from Peter Drucker "The most exciting and innovative work in management today is found in accounting theory, with new concepts, new methodology--even what might be called new economic philosophy--rapidly taking shape. And while there is enormous controversy over specifics, the lineaments of the new manufacturing accounting are becoming clearer every day.”Peter E. Drucker, “The Emerging Theory of Manufacturing,” Harvard Business Review, May-June 1990, pp
13 Partial Organization Chart - Manufacturing Company PresidentProductionVice-presidentFinancialVice-presidentMachiningSupervisorAssemblySupervisorControllerTreasurerController’sFunctionsTreasurer'sFunctions
14 Role of Controller and Treasurer 1. Collection of cash2. Monitoring of cashpayments3. Monitors cash availability4. Short-term investments5. Short and long-termborrowing6. Issuing of capital stock1. Financial reports2. Securities commission reporting3. Tax planning and reporting4. Performance reporting5. Internal auditing6. Budgeting7. Accounting systems andinternal controls
15 Management Accounting and Ethical Conduct Some Types of Unethical ConductAbuse of accounting informationAcceptance of bribes or giftsConflict of interestDisclosure of confidential information
16 Standards of Ethical Conduct for Management Accountants CompetenceConfidentialityIntegrityObjectivity
17 Management Accountants have a responsibility to CompetenceMaintain professional competence.Perform professional duties in accordance with relevant laws, regulations, and technical standards.Prepare complete and clear reports and recommendations.
18 Management Accountants have a responsibility to ConfidentialityRefrain from disclosing confidential information.Inform subordinates as to how to handle confidential information.Refrain from using confidential information for unethical or illegal advantage.
19 Management Accountants have a responsibility to IntegrityAvoid conflicts of interest.Refrain from activity that would prejudice their ability to carry out their duties ethically.Refuse gifts, favors, or hospitality that would influence their actions.Refrain from subverting attainment of the organization’s legitimate and ethical objectives.
20 Integrity (continued) Management Accountants have a responsibility toIntegrity (continued)Recognize and communicate professional limitations that would preclude responsible judgment.Communicate unfavourable as well as favourable information.Refrain from engaging in or supporting any activity that would discredit the profession.
21 Management Accountants have a responsibility to ObjectivityCommunicate information fairly and objectively.Disclose fully all relevant information that could reasonably be expected to influence user's understanding of the reports, comments, and recommendations presented.
22 Resolution of Ethical Conflict Courses of actionsDiscuss problems with immediate supervisor except when it appears the superior is involved.If the immediate superior is the chief executive officer, or equivalent, the acceptable reviewing authority may be the audit committee, board of trustees, or owners.Clarify relevant concepts by confidential discussion with an objective advisor to obtain an understanding of possible courses of action.
23 Resolution of Ethical Conflict (continued) Courses of actionsIf the ethical conflict still exists after exhausting all levels of internal review, the management accountant may have no other recourse than to resign.Except where legally prescribed, communication of such problems with external parties is not appropriate.
24 Professional Designations CA- The distinguishing characteristic of the profession is its unchallenged right to provide assurance concerning the reliability of financial statements to external parties.CMA-The distinguishing characteristic of the profession is its upholding of management accounting as a recognized, professional discipline, separate from public accounting.CGA- CGA’s may specialize in financial, managerial, or tax accounting but the right to audit financial statements is somewhat restricted.