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How To Write A questionnaire

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Presentation on theme: "How To Write A questionnaire"— Presentation transcript:

1 How To Write A questionnaire

2 When to use a questionnaire?
When resources and money are limited When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants When corroborating other findings

3 Role of the questionnaire
The role of the questionnaire is to elicit the information that is required to enable the researcher to answer the objectives of the survey. To do this the questionnaire must not only collect the data required, but collect the data in the most accurate way possible A poorly written questionnaire will not provide the data that are required or, worse, will provide data that are incorrect.

4 The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include:
Defining the Objectives of the survey Determining the Sampling Group Writing the Questionnaire Administering the Questionnaire Interpretation of the Results

5 Defining the Objectives of the Study
The first task with any study is to define the objectives that the study is to answer. Where the objectives are specific, the questionnaire writer’s task is usually rather more straightforward than where the survey is exploratory in nature. A specific objective usually implies that there is a specific question to be answered and it is the questionnaire writer’s job to find the most appropriate way of answering that question.

6 people who have an interest in the questionnaire
The people commissioning the study, require the questionnaire to collect the information that will enable them to answer their objectives. The interviewers, where used, want a questionnaire that is straightforward to administer. Respondents want a questionnaire that poses them questions that they can answer without too much effort, and that maintains their interest, without taking up too much of their time. The data processors want a questionnaire layout that allows for uncomplicated data entry.

7 What kind of questions do we ask?
Open format or closed format Open format questions are good for soliciting subjective data or when the range of responses is not tightly defined. An obvious advantage is that the variety of responses should be wider and more truly reflect the opinions of the respondents. This increases the likelihood of you receiving unexpected and insightful suggestions, for it is impossible to predict the full range of opinion It is common for a questionnaire to end with and open format question asking the respondent for her unabashed ideas for changes or improvements. Finally, open format questions require more thought and time on the part of the respondent

8 Closed format questions usually take the form of a multiple-choice question.They are easy.
There is no clear consensus on the number of options that should be given in an closed format question.

9 Clarity This is probably the area that causes the greatest source of mistakes in questionnaires. Questions must be clear, and unambiguous. The goal is to eliminate the chance that the question will mean different things to different people. If the designers fails to do this, then essentially participants will be answering different questions.

10 For example, it asking a question about frequency, rather than supplying choices that are open to interpretation such as: Very Often Often Sometimes Rarely Never It is better to quantify the choices, such as: Every Day or More 2-6 Times a Week About Once a Week About Once a Month

11 Leading Questions A leading question is one that forces or implies a certain type of answer. It is easy to make this mistake not in the question, but in the choice of answers. A closed format question must supply answers that not only cover the whole range of responses, but that are also equally distributed throughout the range.

12 Phrasing Most adjectives, verbs, and nouns in English have either a positive or negative connotation. Two words may have equivalent meaning, yet one may be a compliment and the other an insult. Consider the two words "child-like" and "childish

13 Assure a common understanding
Write questions that everyone will understand in the same way. Don't assume that everyone has the same understanding of the facts or a common basis of knowledge. Identify even commonly used  abbreviations to be certain that everyone understands

14 Start with interesting questions
Start the survey with questions that are likely to sound interesting and attract the respondents' attention. Save the questions that might be difficult for later

15 Avoid double negatives
Respondents can easily be confused deciphering the meaning of a question that uses two negative words.  

16 Embarrassing Questions
Embarrassing questions dealing with personal or private matters should be avoided. Your data is only as good as the trust and care that your respondents give you. If you make them feel uncomfortable, you will lose their trust. Do not ask embarrassing questions.

17 Don't make the list of choices too long
If the list of answer categories is long and unfamiliar, it is difficult for respondents to evaluate all of them. Keep the list of choices short.   

18 Put your questions in a logic order
The issues raised in one question can influence how people think about subsequent questions. It is good to ask a general question and then ask more specific questions. Start with demography. Group your risk factor Data collection

19 Many problems arise because of problems within the questionnaire itself. These can include:
ambiguity in the question; inadequate response codes questions asked inaccurately by the interviewer; failure of the respondent to understand the question

20 Pre-test your survey It is better to identify a problem during the pretest. Before sending a survey to a target audience, send it out as a test to a small number of people. After they have completed the survey, brainstorm with them to see if they had problems answering any questions. It would help if they explained what the question meant to them and whether it was valid to the questionnaire or not. 

21 Cover memo or introduction
Once a recipient opens your survey, you may still need to motivate him or her to complete it. The cover memo or introduction offers an excellent place to provide the motivation. A good cover memo or introduction should be short and includes:   Purpose of the survey  Why it is important to hear from the correspondent  What may be done with the results and what possible impacts may occur with the results.   Address identification  Person to contact for questions about the survey .  Due date for response

Avoid abstract terms and jargon Provide clarifying details TIP 3: AVOID CONFUSION Avoid double-barreled questions Avoid double-negative wording TIP 4: USE APPROPRIATE SCALES


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