Presentation on theme: "How To Write A questionnaire"— Presentation transcript:
1 How To Write A questionnaire Dr. JAWAHER AL-AHMADIMB. ABFM. SBFM. MSc
2 When to use a questionnaire? When resources and money are limitedWhen it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participantsWhen corroborating other findings
3 Role of the questionnaire The role of the questionnaire is to elicit the information that is required to enable the researcher to answer the objectives of the survey.To do this the questionnaire must not only collect the data required, but collect the data in the most accurate way possibleA poorly written questionnaire will not provide the data that are required or, worse, will provide datathat are incorrect.
4 The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include: Defining the Objectives of the surveyDetermining the Sampling GroupWriting the QuestionnaireAdministering the QuestionnaireInterpretation of the Results
5 Defining the Objectives of the Study The first task with any study is to define the objectives that the study is to answer.Where the objectives are specific, the questionnaire writer’s task is usually rather more straightforward than where the survey is exploratory in nature.A specific objective usually implies that there is a specific question to be answered and it is the questionnaire writer’s job to find the most appropriate way of answering that question.
6 people who have an interest in the questionnaire The people commissioning the study, require the questionnaire to collect the information that will enable them to answer their objectives.The interviewers, where used, want a questionnaire that is straightforward to administer.Respondents want a questionnaire that poses them questions that they can answer without too much effort, and that maintains their interest, without taking up too much of their time.The data processors want a questionnaire layout that allows for uncomplicated data entry.
7 What kind of questions do we ask? Open format or closed formatOpen format questions are good for soliciting subjective data or when the range of responses is not tightly defined.An obvious advantage is that the variety of responses should be wider and more truly reflect the opinions of the respondents.This increases the likelihood of you receiving unexpected and insightful suggestions, for it is impossible to predict the full range of opinionIt is common for a questionnaire to end with and open format question asking the respondent for her unabashed ideas for changes or improvements.Finally, open format questions require more thought and time on the part of the respondent
8 Closed format questions usually take the form of a multiple-choice question.They are easy. There is no clear consensus on the number of options that should be given in an closed format question.
9 ClarityThis is probably the area that causes the greatest source of mistakes in questionnaires.Questions must be clear, and unambiguous.The goal is to eliminate the chance that the question will mean different things to different people.If the designers fails to do this, then essentially participants will be answering different questions.
10 For example, it asking a question about frequency, rather than supplying choices that are open to interpretation such as:Very OftenOftenSometimesRarelyNeverIt is better to quantify the choices, such as:Every Day or More2-6 Times a WeekAbout Once a WeekAbout Once a Month
11 Leading QuestionsA leading question is one that forces or implies a certain type of answer.It is easy to make this mistake not in the question, but in the choice of answers.A closed format question must supply answers that not only cover the whole range of responses, but that are also equally distributed throughout the range.
12 PhrasingMost adjectives, verbs, and nouns in English have either a positive or negative connotation.Two words may have equivalent meaning, yet one may be a compliment and the other an insult.Consider the two words "child-like" and "childish
13 Assure a common understanding Write questions that everyone will understand in the same way.Don't assume that everyone has the same understanding of the facts or a common basis of knowledge.Identify even commonly used abbreviations to be certain that everyone understands
14 Start with interesting questions Start the survey with questions that are likely to sound interesting and attract the respondents' attention.Save the questions that might be difficult for later
15 Avoid double negatives Respondents can easily be confused deciphering the meaning of a question that uses two negative words.
16 Embarrassing Questions Embarrassing questions dealing with personal or private matters should be avoided.Your data is only as good as the trust and care that your respondents give you.If you make them feel uncomfortable, you will lose their trust.Do not ask embarrassing questions.
17 Don't make the list of choices too long If the list of answer categories is long and unfamiliar, it is difficult for respondents to evaluate all of them.Keep the list of choices short.
18 Put your questions in a logic order The issues raised in one question can influence how people think about subsequent questions.It is good to ask a general question and then ask more specific questions.Start with demography.Group your risk factorData collection
19 Many problems arise because of problems within the questionnaire itself. These can include: ambiguity in the question;inadequate response codesquestions asked inaccurately by the interviewer;failure of the respondent to understand the question
20 Pre-test your surveyIt is better to identify a problem during the pretest.Before sending a survey to a target audience, send it out as a test to a small number of people.After they have completed the survey, brainstorm with them to see if they had problems answering any questions.It would help if they explained what the question meant to them and whether it was valid to the questionnaire or not.
21 Cover memo or introduction Once a recipient opens your survey, you may still need to motivate him or her to complete it.The cover memo or introduction offers an excellent place to provide the motivation.A good cover memo or introduction should be short and includes: Purpose of the survey Why it is important to hear from the correspondent What may be done with the results and what possible impacts may occur with the results. Address identification Person to contact for questions about the survey. Due date for response
22 TIPs TIP 1: BE RELEVANT TIP 2: BE SPECIFIC Avoid abstract terms and jargonProvide clarifying detailsTIP 3: AVOID CONFUSIONAvoid double-barreled questionsAvoid double-negative wordingTIP 4: USE APPROPRIATE SCALES