4Subtitles Jan Ivarrson ‘Subtitling for the Media’ 1992 Henrik Gottlieb ‘Subtitling, a new university discipline’ 1991, etc.Irene Kovacic (Llubiana)Yves Gambier (Turku)Jorge Diaz (Roehampton)Pilar Orero (Barcelona)
5IntertitlesTwo years later Frankenstein had discovered the mystery of life.Tiger – the bully of the jungle …. cruel ….bloodthirsty.+ letters, signs, etc.
6Intertitles 2 UNCLE TOM’S CABIN 1927 Across two states – George Harris, ever on the trail of Lemul Proctor, the buyer of Little Harry.Moonlight bathing the old Kentucky home in radiance – romance in the winged and perfumed breezes of the night.“Dunno whar dey is, Missy ‘Liza”
7Subtitles over the years photographed on cards and then together with film;photo of whole film;‘clichés’ printed on film;laser – vaporises emulsion at correct point;computer with time code.
8Technical aspects 1 Script (but often transcription) translation adaptationcomposition(translate all ‘written’ elements)
9Technical aspects 2 Ideally there should be notes on the film itself, the characters, the original story, the culturalreferences, etc. – but there never is!!!(Minchinton)
10Technical aspects 3 SPOTTING – where to insert the subtitles. in cue out cuespotting list.
11Technical aspects 4 BACKGROUND white titles on dark background bottom of screen where there is least light and least actionexcept in snow scenes, etc. (black box)
12Technical aspects 5 DIMENSIONS width 2/3 of screen – centred height 15% of screencharacters per line (28-38 on TV)(max. 68 or two lines of 20 ‘m’.)
13Technical aspects 6 LINES 1 or 2 lines 2 lines avoids ‘flash effect’; generally better to have two one-liners together than two separate titles.
14Technical aspects 7 TIME Film characters speak quicker than the ‘average reader’ – but what is the “averagereader???”As it is necessary to also take in the visuals,etc., one line should remain on screen for at leastFOUR seconds, and two lines for 6-8 seconds.Otherwise there is a danger of ‘re-reading’.
15Technical aspects 8 GAP BETWEEN TITLES 3-8 frames or ¼ second. Viewers need a fraction of a second toidentify speaker (fixation pause).Must not overlap scene change or shotchange. Otherwise viewer reads title again(overlapping effect).
16Technical aspects 9 SEGMENTATION Units must be syntactically and semanticallycomplete.Never separate articles & nouns; prepositions& nouns, conjunctions & clauses, pronouns &verbs, compund verbs, adjectives & nouns,etc.
17Technical aspects 9a (from CARO DIARIO) “Non sapeva niente: come poteva immaginarsiche il giorno dopo per lui sarebbe cambiata lavita?”He didn’t know his life wouldchange the next dayHe didn’t knowhis life would change the next day
18Technical aspects 10 DIALOGUE Character One Character Two Hello, how are you?None the better for seeing you!(second part appears before it is spoken)
19Technical aspects 11 PUNCTUATION Every language has a different prosody (rhythm of text, emphasis, irony, etc.)Fullstop to end title.Dots for hesitation, interruption …Exclamation and Question marks.Underlining.Italics – voice off, flashback, etc.Capitals for signs, posters, etc.Brackets (in arabic) or for deaf (train passing)# songs eg. #tralala
20ReadabilityThe quality that makes possible the recognition of the information content of material when it is represented by alphanumeric characters in meaningful groupings, such as words, sentences or continuous text.
21FixationDuring reading our eyes do not move smoothly across the page … they make a series of jumps …… between the jumps the eyes remain relatively still, for about a quarter of a second, in what is referred to as a fixation.
22Public view (from ‘Too Close to Home’ : L.Barclay) A. …And he loved movies. But not the ones everyone else liked. He liked the ones with the words at the bottom.B. Subtitles.A. That’s right. Movies in different languages. He liked to watch those. He had an appreciation for things that other people didn’t care much about.
25Gottlieb on Subtitling Prepared communicationusing written languageacting as an additiveand synchronous semiotic channelas part of a transientAnd polysemiotic text
26Subtitles/spontaneous conversation Prepared not preparedWritten spokenAdditive originalSynchronous extemporeTransient ongoingPolysemiotic multimodal
27WrittenAs such, subtitling differs from all other types of screen translation.Loss: ‘reducing’ a language to writing.Gain: introduction of extraneous features that are not part of spoken discourse. Cf. ‘Pro rata’.
28AdditiveVerbal material is added to the original maintaining the source language discourse.Intralingual/Interlingual
29ImmediateAll discourse is presented in a flowing manner, beyond the control of the viewer.This is changing with the introduction of video, DVD, repetition in 24-hour TV news programmes, interactive TV (“press your red SKY button”), etc.
30SynchronousThe original film and the translated dialogue are presented simultaneously, not even like simultaneous interpreting, where there are dangers.
31Polymedial Multimodal At least two parallel channels are used to convey the total message of the original.
32The Gottlieb Strategies TRANSFEREXPANSIONCONDENSATIONDECIMATIONDELETIONPARAPHRASEIMITATIONTRANSCRIPTIONDISLOCATIONRESIGNATION
33Transfer Complete translation Not word-for-word. Hi, honey. Ciao, dolcezza.
34ExpansionGive extra information, for example in the case of culture bound terms.eg. ‘In the Name of the Father’: I.R.A.
35Condensation Say the same thing in a shorter way, If only I could… Magari…
36Decimation Remove completely a part of the discourse. Si ma guardi cos’ha combinato, guardi che casino, porca puttana…But look at this bloody mess(from ‘La Bionda’ di S. Rubini)
37Deletion Remove entire text. Would you like a cigarette?
38Cf. sign language for the deaf Ultimo confronto stasera di questa coppa dei campioni della politica in cinque giornate che si è disputata nelle ultime settimane su RAI uno e partita di ritorno tra Silvio Berlusconi e Romano Prodi.Stasera, su RAI uno, ultimo dibattito politico della campagna elettorale tra Silvio Berlusconi e Romano Prodi.
39Paraphrase Say the same thing in a different way. For example ‘Kramer versus Kramer’Ebbets Field….monopattini…
40Imitation Repeat verbatim. For example, names, quotes, etc. Janes Bond, Fifth Avenue, “c’est la vie”.
41Transcription Copy any speech defects, etc. ‘A fish called Wanda’ They don’t sh..sh..sh..Non c..c..c..
49Deletion ‘Caro Diario’ Te lo dico io perché. Perché odio gente … come te!I hate people like you!
50Paraphrase ‘Caro Diario’ Ormai ha paura di rimettermi in gioco.I’m afraid to re-think my life.
51Imitation ‘Caro Diario’ Quam juvat – quant’è bello!Quam juvat – how beautiful!
52Transcription ‘Caro Diario’ Ca-pi-sci quel-lo che ti dico?Un-der-stand what I’m say-ing?
53Resignation ‘Caro Diario’ Garibaldi qui ci ha fatto la resistenza.Garibaldi fought here.
54Moretti monologue: Italian D’estate a Roma, i cinema sono tutti chiusi.Oppure ci sono …film dell’orrore come “Henry”.Oppure qualche film italiano.Ormai ho paura di rimettermi in gioco..Sono un vigliacco.Ma cosa è successo in tutti questi anni? Ditemelo voi.Ti si stanno imbiancando le tempie.Incominciano a pesare le sconfitte..
55Moretti monologue: English Summer in Rome, the cinemas are closed (T)All you can see is … (P)horror films like “Henry, Portrait of a Serial Killer” (E)Or some Italian films (T)I’m afraid to re-think my life (P)I’m a coward (T)What happened. Tell me? (D)Your temples are turning white. (T)The weight of defeat. (C)
62Subtitling for what? Subtitling of different film types documentary, soap opera, filmSubtitling from filmeseto filmeseto naturalSubtitling fordidactic purposesentertainment purposes
63Subtitles for teaching lexico-grammar itemsregistersgenresconversation analysistranslation
64Other languages Intralingual subtitling Interlingual subtitling English-EnglishItalian-ItalianGaelic-Gaelic?Interlingual subtitlingEnglish-Italian and vice versaEnglish-Galician Portuguese and vice versa
65Database Create database of subtitled genres: car adverts (drinks adverts)domestic soap scenesnature documentaries‘rows’etc.
66Relational database Relate subtitled text to other semiotic modalities gesturemusiccamera angle/positionetc.