Overview 1.Why worry about fat intake? 2.Different types of fats 3.What role do calories play? 4.Fat Calories 5.Increasing Fiber in your diet 6.Reading Food Labels
Why worry about fat? A diet high in fat or cholesterol can lead to many disease states. Over 50 million Americans have cardiovascular problems, and most other Western countries face high and increasing rates of cardiovascular disease. It is the number 1 cause of death and disability in the United States and most European countries.
By the time that heart problems are detected, the underlying cause (atherosclerosis) is usually quite advanced, having progressed for decades. There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis by modifying risk factors, such as: 1.Healthy eating 2.Exercise 3.Avoidance of smoking
What is Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a disease of arterial blood vessels. Also known as hardening of the blood vessels. Plaque (fat) attaches or forms on the vessel wall, and in late stages may restrict blood flow completely.
Which in turn can causes heart attack or stroke!
Types of fat Saturated Fat Monounsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated Fat Trans Fats Cholesterol – HDL, LDL, VLDL
Types of fat Saturated Fat - Saturated fat is the main dietary cause of high blood cholesterol. What does Saturated Fat mean and look like ?
H H H H H H H Saturated means that Hydrogen molecules are attached everywhere on the chain. There are no points missing an “H” or a (hydrogen molecule) – thus SATURATED!
Types of Saturated fats Includes all animal fats (e.g. milk fat, lard, cheese, meat), as well as palm oil, coconut oil, cocoa fat and hydrogenated vegetable oil (better known as shortening). (solid at room temperature)
Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty acids - fats are the two unsaturated fats. They're found primarily in oils from plants. Types of fat
H H H H H H H H Unsaturated means that Hydrogen molecules are NOT attached everywhere on the chain. There are some points missing an “H” or a (hydrogen molecule) – thus UNSATURATED!
Monounsaturated means you are missing “H” on one place on the chain. Thus MONO! Polyunsaturated means you are missing “H” on more than one place on the chain. Thus POLY!
Types of Unsaturated fats All other vegetable fats, such as those coming from olive, peanut, maize (corn oil), cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, and soybean, are predominantly unsaturated. (liquid at room temperature)
Shape of Unsaturated fats Unsaturated fats can be in one of two shapes — "cis" and "trans." These terms refer to the physical positioning of hydrogen atoms around the carbon chain. The cis form is more common than the trans form.
Trans - means on Cis – means on “opposite side” “same side”
Where are Trans Fats Found? Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are found in small amounts in various animal products such as beef, pork, lamb and the butterfat in butter and milk.
Where are Trans Fats Found? TFA are also formed during the process of hydrogenation, making margarine, shortening, cooking oils and the foods made from them are major source of TFA in the American diet. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils provide about three- fourths of the TFA in the U.S. diet.
Where are Trans Fats Found? TFA are also found in snack foods, fried foods, baked goods, salad dressings, and other processed foods.
For example: A typical candy bar might have a shelf life of 30 days without use of hydrogenated oils, while the same product with hydrogenated oils can last up to 18 months.
Types of fat Cholesterol - Cholesterol is limited to less than 200 milligrams a day. Only found in animal products.
Types of Cholesterol HDL – Good Cholesterol LDL – Bad Cholesterol VLDL – Very bad Cholesterol
High Density Lipoproteins - varying somewhat in their size and contents, that carry cholesterol from the body's tissues to the liver. Types of Cholesterol
Low Density Lipoproteins – refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells.
Very Low Density Lipoproteins– It is assembled in the liver from cholesterol and apolipoproteins. It is converted in the bloodstream to low density lipoprotein (LDL). Types of Cholesterol
Very Low Density Lipoproteins– VLDL is prone to accelerate atherosclerosis, and is elevated in a number of diseases and metabolic states. Types of Cholesterol
What role do calories play? Calories are a source of fuel that your body uses for energy. If you consume too many calories in a day, they can be converted and stored as fat.
How are calories distributed? Carbohydrates 4 Protein 4 Fat 9 Alcohol 7 Calories per gram
Example: If a hamburger paty contains 16 grams of fat and 50 grams of protein, how many calories does that total? 16 x 9 calories/g = 144 50 x 4 calories/g = 200 344 calories for this item