Presentation on theme: "1 THE PRINCIPLE OF FREE MOVEMENT OF PLAYERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FIFA REGULATIONS MICHELE COLUCCI KULEUVEN, CAS-LEUVEN."— Presentation transcript:
1 THE PRINCIPLE OF FREE MOVEMENT OF PLAYERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FIFA REGULATIONS MICHELE COLUCCI KULEUVEN, CAS-LEUVEN 2011
2 FREE MOVEMENT OF WORKERS Artt.45 TFEU Workers have the right to: –; –accept offers of employment actually made; – –move freely within the territory of Member States for this purpose; – ; –to stay in a Member State for the purpose of employment; –. –to remain in the territory of a Member State after having been employed in that State.
3 CASE LAW OF ECJ: evolution Definition of «worker»: –A PERSON PERFORMS SERVICES OF SOME ECONOMIC VALUE FOR AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF ANOTHER PERSON IN RETURN FOR WHICH HE RECEIVES REMUNERATION (Lawrie-Blum, C-66/85). «Community meaning»(Unger, C-75/63). Fundamental Principle: broad interpretation (Levin, C-53/81). Exceptions and derogations: strict interpretation (Kempf,C-139/85).
4 EQUAL TREATMENT BAN ON DIRECT DISCRIMINATIONS Art. 18 TFEU on the basis of nationality Art. 45 TFEU:… –Access to employment –Pay –Employment conditions Association agreement, Co-operation agreement, and so on. SPORT: Balog case, Simutenkov, case
5 « COVERT DISCRIMINATIONS » NO « COVERT FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION which, by the application of other criteria of differentiation, lead in fact to the same result. (cause 152/73 Sotgiu) YES, only in case of « objective reasons »; proportionality test!
6 THE UEFA HOMEGROWN PLAYER RULE Homegrown: player trained by a club for 3 years when he is between 15 and 21 years old –2006/ up to 25 –2007/20086 up to 25 –2008/20098 up to 25 No discrimination on the basis of nationality.
7 Reverse discrimination National law v. EU law: National law v. EU law: –Different scope – different goals EU Law does not apply to purely internal matters.
8 The case law of the ECJ Sport is subject to Community law in so far as it constitutes an economic activity within the meaning of Article 2 of the Treaty. Walrave case, C-36/74. Donà v. Montero case, C- 13/76(nationality clause). sports or economic activity? –C-51/96 Deliège case, C-176/96, Lethonen case, Meca – Medina case(doping).
9 THE BOSMAN case cause C -415/93 DAVID v. GOLIAH! Sport= economic activity= the end of transfer compensation NO QUOTA! Quid training ? The new FIFA regulations on Status and Transfer of Players
10 FIFA regulations on Status and Transfer of Players The Gentlemens agreement (2001) –The five principles: free of movement, protection of minors, training compensation, solidarity mechanism, dispute resolution and arbitration system FIFA Regulations 2004 – – 2010 FIFA Regulations
11 Contract Maximum of 5 years For under 18:maximum of 3 years Mention to the name of the agent It is not subject to a positive medical examination and/or the granting of a work permit
12 CONTRACTUAL STABILITY Respect of contract Terminating a contract for –By mutual agreement –Just Cause –Sporting Just Cause
13 ART. 17 of the FIFA Regulations The following provisions apply if a contract is terminated without just cause: 1. In all cases, the party in breach shall pay compensation. Unless otherwise provided for in the contract, compensation for the breach shall be calculated with 1. Due consideration for the law of the country concerned, 2. The specificity of sport, and 3. any other objective criteria. These criteria shall include, in particular, A. the remuneration and other benefits due to the player under the existing contract and/or the new contract, B. the time remaining on the existing contract up to a maximum of five years, C. the fees and expenses paid or incurred by the former club (amortised over the term of the contract) and whether the contractual breach falls within a protected period
14 Sporting Sanctions Sporting sanctionsSporting sanctions – Players: suspension of 4 months, but also 6 months in the case of aggravating circumstances – Clubs: ban to register new players for two registration periods. See MEXES and WEBSTER Cases before DRC and CAS
15 Training Compensation must be paid when: – a player signs his first contract as a professional, – on each transfer of a professional until the end of the season of his 23rd birthday.
16 TRAINING COMPENSATION Clubs from Europe: First category: euros Second category: euros Third category: Fourth category: euros
17 Solidarity Mechanism If a professional is transferred before the expiry of his contract, any club that has contributed to his education and training shall receive a proportion of the compensation paid to his previous club
18 BERNARD 16 of March 2010 A scheme providing for the payment of compensation for training where a young player, at the end of his training, signs a professional contract with a club other than the one which trained him can, in principle, be justified by the objective of encouraging the recruitment and training of young players. However, such a scheme must be actually capable of attaining that objective and be proportionate to it, taking due account of the costs borne by the clubs in training both future professional players and those who will never play professionally (para. 45).
19 Bosman versus Bernard Sport in so far as economic activity Free movement of workers Restrictions regardless of nationality Professional to professional End of (prof.) contract Sport in so far as economic activity Free movement of workers Restrictions regardless of nationality Amateur to professional End of (amateur) contract/training
20 Jurisdiction Civil court for employment-related disputes But FIFA for –Disputes between clubs and players in relation to the maintenance of contractual stability if there has been an ITC Request –Disputes related to Training Compensation (Art. 20) and Solidarity Mechanism –Employment-related disputes between a club and a player that have an international dimension. unless an independent national arbitration tribunal (fair proceedings and equal representation of players and clubs)
21 Judicial Bodies Players Status Committee Dispute Resolution Chamber (now also a single judge) CAS