3 5-2Heat Received by Heat Engine is Partly Converted to Work, Partly Rejected to Sink(Fig. 5-9)
4 Schematic of Steam Power Plant 5-3Schematic of Steam Power Plant(Fig. 5-10)
5 Even the Most Efficient Heat Engines Reject Most Heat as Waste Heat 5-4Even the Most Efficient Heat Engines Reject Most Heat as Waste Heat(Fig. 5-15)
6 A Heat-Engine Cycle Must Reject Some Heat to a Low-Temperature Sink 5-5A Heat-Engine Cycle Must Reject Some Heat to a Low-Temperature SinkA heat-engine cycle cannot be completed without rejecting some heat to a low-temperature sink
7 The Definition of the heating value of gasoline 5-6The Definition of the heating value of gasoline(Fig. 5-21)
8 The Efficiency of a Cooking Appliance 5-7The Efficiency of a Cooking ApplianceThe efficiency of a cooking appliance represents the fraction of the energy supplied to the appliance that is transferred to the food(Fig. 5-23)
9 Basic Components of a Refrigeration System in Typical Conditions 5-8Basic Components of a Refrigeration System in Typical Conditions(Fig. 5-25)
10 Refrigerator’s Objective: Supply Heat Q H into the Warmer Space 5-9Refrigerator’s Objective: Supply Heat Q H into the Warmer Space(Fig. 5-26)
11 Heat Pump’s Objective: Remove Q L from the Cooled Space 5-10Heat Pump’s Objective: Remove Q L from the Cooled Space(Fig. 5-27)
12 A Refrigerator That Violates Claussius Statement of the Second Law 5-11A Refrigerator That Violates Claussius Statement of the Second Law(Fig. 5-32)
13 5-12Violating Kelvin-Planck Statement Leads to Claussius Statement Violation(Fig. 5-33)Proof that the violation of the Kelvin-Planck statement leads to the violation of the Claussius Statement
14 Execution of the Carnot Cycle in a Closed System 5-13Execution of the Carnot Cycle in a Closed System(Fig. 5-43)
15 P-v Diagram of the Carnot Cycle 5-14P-v Diagram of the Carnot Cycle(Fig. 5-44)
16 P-v Diagram of the Reversed Carnot Cycle 5-15P-v Diagram of the Reversed Carnot Cycle(Fig. 5-45)
17 Proof of the First Carnot Principle 5-16Proof of the First Carnot Principle(Fig. 5-47)
18 5-17Same Efficiency for Reversible Heat Engines Operating Between Same Two reservoirsAll Reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs have the same efficiency (the Second Carnot principle)(Fig. 5-48)
19 Heat Engine Arrangement for Developing Thermodynamic temperature Scale 5-18Heat Engine Arrangement for Developing Thermodynamic temperature Scale(Fig. 5-49)
20 5-19For Reversible Cycles, the Temperature Ratio can replace the Heat Transfer RatioFor Reversible cycles, the heat transfer ratio QH/ QL can be replaced by the absolute temperature ratio TH / TL(Fig. 5-50)
21 Reversible Heat Engines have Higher Efficiency than Other Heat Engines 5-20Reversible Heat Engines have Higher Efficiency than Other Heat EnginesNo heat engine can have a higher efficiency than a Reversible heat engine operating between the same high- and low-temperature reservoirs(Fig. 5-53)
22 The Higher the Temperature of Thermal Energy, the Higher its Quality 5-21The Higher the Temperature of Thermal Energy, the Higher its Quality(Fig. 5-56)
23 A Reversible Refrigerator has the Highest COP 5-22A Reversible Refrigerator has the Highest COPNo Refrigerator can have a higher COP than a Reversible Refrigerator operating between the same temperature limits(Fig. 5-57)
24 The Cross Section of a Refrigerator 5-23The Cross Section of a RefrigeratorThe cross section of a Refrigerator showing the relative magnitudes of various effects that constitute the predictable heat load*(Fig. 5-61)* From ASHRAE Handbook of Refrigeration, Chap. 48, Fig. 2
25 5-24Chapter SummaryThe second law of thermodynamics states that processes occur in a certain direction, not in any direction. A process will not occur unless it satisfies both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. Bodies that can absorb or reject finite amounts of heat isothermally are called thermal energy reservoirs or heat reservoirs.
26 5-25Chapter SummaryWork can be converted to heat directly, but heat can be converted to work only by some devices called heat engines.
27 5-26Chapter SummaryThe thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as where Wnet, is the net work output of the heat engine, QH is the amount of heat supplied to the engine, and QL is the amount of heat rejected by the engine.
28 5-27Chapter SummaryRefrigerators and heat pumps are devices that absorb heat from low-temperature media and reject it to higher-temperature ones. The performance of a refrigerator or a heat pump is expressed in terms of the coefficient of performance, which is defined as
29 5-28Chapter SummaryThe Kelvin -Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics states that no heat engine can produce a net amount of work while exchanging heat with a single reservoir only.
30 5-29Chapter SummaryThe Clausius statement of the second law states that no device can transfer heat from a cooler body to a warmer one without leaving an effect on the surroundings. Any device that violates the first or the second law of thermodynamics is called a perpetual-motion machine.
31 5-30Chapter SummaryA process is said to be reversible if both the system and the surroundings can be restored to their original conditions. Any other process is irreversible. The effects such as friction, non-quasi-equilibrium expansion or compres-sion, and heat transfer through a finite temperature difference render a pro-cess irreversible and are called irreversibilities.
32 5-31Chapter SummaryThe Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle that is composed of four reversible processes, two isothermal and two adiabatic.
33 5-32Chapter SummaryThe Carnot principles state that the thermal efficiencies of all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs are the same, and that no heat engine is more efficient than a reversible one operating between the same two reservoirs.
34 5-33Chapter SummaryThese statements form the basis for establishing a thermodynamic temperature scale related to the heat transfers between a reversible device and the high- and low-temperature reservoirs by Therefore, the QH/QL ratio can be replaced by TH/TL for reversible devices, where TH and TL are the absolute temperatures of the high- and low-temperature reservoirs, respectively.
35 5-34Chapter SummaryA heat engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle is called a Carnot heat engine. The thermal efficiency of a Carnot heat engine, as well as all other reversible heat engines, is given by This is the maximum efficiency a heat engine operating between two reservoirs at temperatures TH and TL can have.
36 5-35Chapter SummaryThe COPs of reversible refrigerators and heat pumps are given in a similar manner as and Again, these are the highest COPs a refrigerator or a heat pump operating between the temperature limits of TH and TL can have.