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1 Phones OFF Please Processes Parminder Singh Kang Home: Email:

2 Processes: Most modern operating systems provide facilities for: Multiple concurrent processes, i.e. can run many processes (applications, system tasks) concurrently pseudo parallelism, i.e. processes are running in parallel or apparently in parallel on a machine with more processes than CPUs This is called multiprogramming or multiprocessing CPU execution time is shared among the processes This gives users virtual processors; Applications think they have their own CPU and memory

3 1 Concept of Process and Program Process is program in execution. Process is more than the program code; includes current activity content of processor’s registers. Process generally includes process stack and data section; Process Stack includes; method parameters, return address and local variables, Data section contains global variables. Code – executable code of application.

4 Registers: Registers are in the CPU, e.g. data, address and index registers Includes the program counter (PC)

5 2 Process State During process execution, it goes from one state to another. Process state represents current activity of process; New: Process is being created. Running: Instructions are being executed. Waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur. Such as waiting for I/O event. Ready: process is ready for execution and it’s waiting to be assigned to a processor. Terminated: process has finished execution.

6 New Ready Running Terminated Waiting Admitted Interrupted Exit Scheduler Event Wait Event Completed

7 3 Supporting multiprocessing/multitasking For multiprocessing/multitasking OS needs: Scheduling policy Maintain status of each process Process communication (IPC) and synchronization. Creation of new processes Removal of completed processes Kernel maintains a process table - one entry per process Process identifier – PID in UNIX Execution state Memory allocation Other resources (files etc), Ownership and accounting

8 Process states Running Ready (to run) Blocked, e.g. waiting for I/O

9 4 Processes in UNIX: Classical sequential processes; Processes runs a single program with a single thread of control. Can have multiple independent processes running. With no users processes are running - background system processes, daemons. e.g. print spooler, cron, email, etc. The first process created is init. Init forks off a login process for each terminal. All other processes are created with fork. When someone logs in, login forks off a shell. The shell forks off user processes as required. Shell waits for the child to terminate before carrying on.

10 How to identify user; identified by a uid. Every process gains the users uid. Root has a uid of 0. Processes with root's uid can make special system calls. e.g. disk space. program with the set uid bit on is executed the effective uid becomes the uid of the program's owner (root), not the uid of the user who called it. This allows users to run a process with root privileges.

11 4.1 Low-level process creation Function execlp () overlays the current process with the named program. e.g. to use ls -l to obtain a list of files in long format in C++: execlp("ls", "ls", "-l", NULL); Parameters are; Filename of the command (i.e. ls in the above example) Command and command line parameters to be passed to the child process (as in the command line ls -l). The execlp call overlays the existing program with the new one, starts it, and then exits (if execlp fails control returns to the parent, e.g. if the file to execute does not exist). execlp (and similar) is used when the parent process is to be terminated.

12 4.2 New processes – Fork and Wait Need of Fork and Wait: Resuming execution of parent process when the child terminates. Run concurrently with the child ( multiprocessing environment ). Under UNIX the function fork makes an exact copy of the process and executes it concurrently with the parent. How to identify? by Process Id. fork returns the child process ID to the parent and zero to the child. if fork fails -1 is returned and errno set. UNIX creates a new process with the fork system call pid = fork();


14 OS makes a clone (identical copy) of the processes: After the fork both processes execute in parallel Original process is the parent and pid is non zero, i.e. the PID of the child New process is the child and pid is zero. Both processes separate, i.e. have separate copies of global and local data, etc. The child and parent then execute in parallel; obviously if there is only one processor they are time-shared. Open files are shared between parent and child. Initially, the child will have a copy of the parents memory, but it will be a separate copy. Heavyweight processes, i.e. called heavyweight because that have separate stacks, heap, etc.

15 e.g. A C++ program that forks and the parent prints "The parent, child pid " and the child prints "The child": #include #include int main(void) { int pid; if((pid = fork()) < 0) // create new process cout << "Fork failed" << endl; else if (pid == 0) cout << "The child" << endl; else cout << "The parent, child pid " << pid << endl; return 0; }

16 Once invoked the child can call execlp to carry out the required task. parent can wait for a child to terminate: pid = wait(&status); Wait returns the process ID of the terminating child process. Parent may have many child processes? checked against the value returned by fork in the low-order eight bits the systems ideas of the child's exit status (0 for normal termination and non-zero for error conditions) next high-order eight bits the value returned by the main child's return from or call to exit.

17 5 Threads Most systems have lightweight processes – threads Lightweight because when new thread is created it uses the same address space as the parent. i.e. they share code and global variables – but have own local variables e.g. in Java Thread p = new Prod(); Thread c = new Cons(); p.start(); c.start();


19 6 Scheduling 6.1 Concept of Process Scheduling: To maximize CPU utilization, there have some process running all the time. How to achieve it; process scheduling. In order to switch between various processes to server user and system requirements. Scheduling queues: Only one process can run at a time. Scheduling queues; Job Queue; Job queue represents all the processes in the system. As processes enter the system, they are put into job queue. Ready Queue; represents list of all processes, those are ready and waiting to execute.

20 For a process p there are several events that can occur; The process could issue an I/O request, and then can be placed in an I/O queue. The process could create a new sub process and wait for its termination. The process could be removed forcibly from the CPU as a interrupt and be put back in ready queue.

21 Ready Queue I/O QueueI/O Request Time Slice Expired Fork a Child Wait for an Interrupt CPU I/O Child Executes Interrupt Occurs

22 6.2 Process Scheduling issues: Primary goal of process scheduling is to maximize CPU utilization. In order to achieve this goal, it is important that processes selected by scheduler are good mixture of I/O based and CPU based processes. Most often there are two types of schedulers are used; Long Term Scheduler or Job Scheduler; Selects processes from the process pool and loads them into main memory for execution. Short Term Scheduler or CPU Scheduler; Select among processes ready for executions, and allocate CPU to One of them. The main difference between both schedulers is the frequency of their execution; CPU scheduler run more often than long term scheduler. Unix only uses Short term Scheduler. How to maintain good mixture of processes according to change in memory requirements? (Medium term Scheduler)

23 6.3 Round Robin Scheduling Most O/S uses a round robin scheduler – each run able process is given a short burst of time (~ 0.1 sec) on CPU - at end of time O/S reschedules a new process. Most are pre-emptive, i.e. can be interrupted to resume later UNIX incorporates priorities on top of this Processes have different priorities; High priority processes run first. All processes with the same priority run in a round robin fashion. Periodically priorities are recalculated (looking at CPU usage, I/O usage, etc. – in general I/O bound processed increase in priority and CPU bound decrease)

24 Thus there is a stack of priority based round robin lists: Using a round robin scheduler the highest priority processes that can run is given a short burst of time At end of time the next process of same priority runs Etc. When all processes of this priority have run go back to 1 Note: At any time a higher priority process may become run able and be given to the CPU If high priority tasks are blocked the scheduler works down priority list until it find one that can run How is process stopped? Voluntarily – when it makes a system call Involuntarily – when an interrupt occurs.

25 Clock Computer has a clock (counter) which counts down to zero. When it gets to zero it generates an interrupt and resets counter. Generates regular interrupts. Real Time Processes When an event occurs process has to be started within critical time. Process should run to completion. Hard real time – essential system meets deadlines (e.g. process control) Soft real time – desirable system meets deadlines (e.g. multimedia)

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