Presentation on theme: "Introduzione alla logistica. Definition of Logistics European Logistics Association (ELA): The planning, execution and control of the movements and placement."— Presentation transcript:
Introduzione alla logistica
Definition of Logistics European Logistics Association (ELA): The planning, execution and control of the movements and placement of people and/or goods, and the supporting activities related to such movement and placement within a system organized to achieve specific objectives.
Popular logistics terms Logistics Management Business Logistics Management Integrated Logistics Management Materials Management Physical Distribution Management Marketing Logistics Industrial Logistics
Civil logistics fields Logistica industriale (business logistics) Logistica delle rinfuse (bulk logistics) Logistica del progetto (project logistics) Logistica dei Sistemi Riparabili ( RAM logistics) Logistica degli eventi (Event logistics) Logistica dei servizi (Service Logistics)
Business Logistics Logistica Industriale Council of Logistics Management (USA) That part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements."
Logistics systems A logistics system is made up of a set of facilities (nodes) linked by transport services (links) and information systems. Facilities are sites where materials are processed, e.g. manufactured, stored, sorted, sold or consumed.
Nodes and links in a logistics system Freight flow Information flow
Global flows, nodes and networks
A logistics system Supplier Manufacturing plant Assembly plant CDC RDC Retail outlets Port
A global logistics system Consolidator/freight forwarder, 3PL Manufacturer Port trucking Warehouse: 3PL, deconsolidator, wholesaler, DC Retailer Small parcel delivery Home
Facilities and transport They include manufacturing and assembly centers, warehouses, distribution centers (DCs), transshipment points, transport terminals, retail outlets, mail sorting centers, garbage incinerators, dump sites, etc. Transport services move materials between facilities using vehicles and equipment such as trucks, tractors, trailers, crews, pallets, containers, cars and trains.
Supply Chain Management SCM Logistics focuses attention on coordinating the product, the information movement and the flow activities of an individual firms Supply chain management is an expanded version of the logistics process that integrates product, information and cash flows among organization
Significance of logistics Logistics is one of the most important activities in modern societies. It has been estimated that the total logistics cost incurred by USA organizations in 2006 was 1,305 $ billion, corresponding to approximately 9,9 % of the USA Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
The U.S. Business Logistics System Cost $ Billions Inventory Carrying Costs446 Transport Costs801 Shipper Related Costs8 Logistics Administration50 Total Logistics Costs1,305
Transport Costs $ Billions Motor CarriersTruck – Intercity Truck – Local Subtotal635 Other CarriersRailroads Water Oil Pipelines Air Forwarders Subtotal166 Total801
Logistics Cost as a % of GDP Source: 18th Annual State of Logistics Report, 2007
Trend of logistics costs (US GDP%)
Logistics and Economy Logistics is an important component of Gross Domestic product GDP. The range is from 10 – 20% of GDP. Logistics adds value by creating utility. Utility is the value that an item or service has in fulfilling a want or need.
Trend of Logistics Costs Logistics costs as a percentage of GDP have declined in US from 16 percent in 1980, to under 10 percent in Early to mid-1970s saw the figure closer to 20 percent. This reflects a serious improvement in the efficiency of logistics systems.
Total Business Inventories
Inventory Sales Ratio Months of supply
Inventories are back down
Inventory as % of GDP Year %
Utility Creation in the Economy
Types of Utility Form utility is the process of creating the good or service, or putting it in the proper form for the customer to use. Possession utility is the value added to a item or service because the customer is able to take actual possession made possible by credit arrangements, loans and so on.
Type of Utility related to logistics A product desired by consumers is in transit, in a warehouse or in another store, it does not create any utility for them, it needs two more utilities provided by logistics: time utility is the value added by having a product or service when it is needed in the marketplace or within the organization; place utility, which means having the item or service available where it is needed.
The Seven Rights of Logistics The right product, publicized with the proper promotion and needed for consumption or production in the right quantity, must be to the right place at the right time in the right condition at the right cost for the right customer.
Key logistics activities Customer service Demand forecasting/planning Inventory management Logistics ICT Material handling Order processing Packaging Parts and service support Plant and warehouse site selection Procurement Return goods handling Reverse logistics Traffic and transport Warehousing and storage
Il marketing massimizza i profitti aziendali La logistica minimizza i costi totali dati gli obiettivi di servizio al cliente Logistica Place/customer service level Marketing
Costi del Marketing Place/customer service level Product/Service PricePromotion
esecuzione ordine e informazione Order processing and information Luogo/livello di servizio cliente Place/customer service level Materiale inventariato Inventory carrying costs Acquisto/produzione lotti Procurement/Lot prod. Trasporto Transport Magazzino Wharehouse Logistics Costs
Luogo/livello di servizio cliente Place/customer service level Servizio al cliente Customer service Assistenza ricambi e servizi Parts and service support Sostituzione prodotti in garanzia Return goods handling
Costi del materiale inventariato Inventory carrying costs Gestione delle scorte Inventory management Imballaggi Packaging Smaltimento rifiuti o riciclaggio di materiale di scarto Reverse logistics
Costi di acquisto/produzione lotti Procurement/lot production costs Movimentazione materiali Material Handling Approvvigionamenti Procurement
The setup cost of lot quantity Time required to set up a line or locate a supplier and place an order Scrap due to setting up the production line operating inefficiency as the line begins to run, or as a new suppliers is brought on board
Other components of lot quantity costs Capacity lost due to downtime during changeover of line or changeover to a new supplier material handling, scheduling and expediting price differentials due to buying in different quantities order costs associated with order placement and handling
Costi di trasporto Transport costs Trasporto dal punto di origine al punto di consumo Trasporto rifiuti al punto di smaltimento Trasporto del materiale di scarto al punto di riciclaggio
Costi di immagazzinamento Warehousing costs Immagazinamento e deposito dei prodotti Warehousing and storage Localizzazione del deposito e della azienda Plant and Warehouse site selection
The relevant inventory costs are those that vary with the amount Capital cost, or opportunity cost, the return that the company could make on the money that it has tied up in inventory Inventory service cost, insurance and taxes warehousing space related costs inventory risk cost, obsolescence, pilferage, relocation within the inventory system, and damage
Costi di esecuzione ordine e informazione Order processing and information costs Gestione ordini Order processing Comunicazioni nella rete logistica Logistics communicatios Pianificazione e previsione della domanda Demand forecasting/planning
Questions (1) 1.What is the role and importance of logistics in private and public organizations? 2.Discuss the impact of logistics on the economy and how effective logistics management contributes to the vitality of the economy. 3.What is the value-added roles of logistics on both a macro and micro level? 4.Explain logistics systems from several perspectives. 5.What is the relationship between logistics and other important functional areas in an organization, including manufacturing, marketing, and finance?
Questions (2) 6.Discuss the importance of management activities in the logistics function. 7.Analyze logistics systems from several different perspectives to meet different objectives. 8.Determine the total costs and understand the cost tradeoffs in a logistics system. 9.Why does a push-based supply chain react more slowly to changing demand than a pull-based system? 10.What is the impact of product diversification (the increase in the number of product variants) on logistics systems planning and control.