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From National Government. To Transnationalized Governance.

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Presentation on theme: "From National Government. To Transnationalized Governance."— Presentation transcript:

1 From National Government

2 To Transnationalized Governance

3 State-Centric Perspective State I State II Society I Society II

4 Simple Transnationalism State I State II Society I Society II

5 Complex Transnationalism Intl Organizations State I State II Society I Society II

6 Tri-Sectoral/Level Perspective Sector: Level: Non-profitPublicPrivate International International NGOs International agencies Multinational corporations National National NGOsNational governments National companies Local Community- based organizations Local governments Neighborhood businesses

7 Manifestations of New Governance Transnational advocacy networks (TANs) International/global/world civil society Intergovernmental institutions and organizations –WTO, NAFTA –WB, IMF –UN New forms of regulation

8 The Growth Of Transnational Nongovernmental Organizations

9 Transnational Governance and Networks How are networks organized? What are effective strategies and tactics? Under what conditions are they successful?

10 Networks National International –Transnational advocacy networks What are networks? –Voluntary, reciprocal patterns of communication and exchange –Fluid and open relationships among committed actors working in an issue area

11 Effective Network Structure Organizationally dense Linked by strong bridging organizations and shared values Participatory and mutually accountable Non-bureaucratic Driven by strong domestic actors, especially grassroots

12 Effective Models for Change “ Boomerang” model of change –When domestic actors blocked –Transnational actors apply pressure “Spiral” model of change & norm adoption –1) State repression – activists put issue on intl agenda. States deny norms –2) States make some concessions under pressure –Opens up domestic space –3) Norms achieve proscriptive status OR states increase repression

13 Effective Network Strategies Employ a range of tactics Operate at multiple levels across numerous countries Wield scientific knowledge Are linked with scientific groups Promote democratization (?)

14 Effective Network Action Issues promote the public interest rather than advancing private interests Norm promotion or creation is aligned with domestic and international environments Monitoring and support of norm implementation is prioritized

15 Supportive Conditions for Change Democratic opportunity structures Elite allies inside powerful agencies Windows of opportunity

16 Challenges for Transnational Networks Diverse member goals Power imbalances Secretive or opaque communication Loose affiliations, far flung Lack of clear goals or activities

17 What are the tactics? Information politics –Create politically usable information Symbolic politics –Create symbols that draw people in Leverage politics –Use material (economics) or moral (shame) leverage Accountability politics –Hold powerful actors to previous statements

18 When are advocacy networks most successful? Issue characteristics –Have moral salience –Have a causal story –Involve clear harm to people –Involve equality of opportunity Actor characteristics –Dense network with many overlapping ties –Targeted actors are vulnerable to activist incentives or sanctions


20 North and Institutions Institutions: incentive structure of society Institutions: ‘rules of the game’ Organizations: “the teams”

21 Institutions as Constraints Reduce ‘transactions costs’ by reducing uncertainty about outcomes –Less than idea but stable institutions might support growth and development Formal constraints: –Rules, laws, constitutions Informal constraints –Norms, conventions, self-imposed codes of conduct

22 How do institutions change? People’s mental models and categories affect how they define problems and see the world –‘culture’ Change occurs: –With shocks or unexpected events –With large scale historical trends like current wave of global integration –But typically quite slowly – mental models are slow to change




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