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Historical Background; Cultural, Legal, Ethical Considerations.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Background; Cultural, Legal, Ethical Considerations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Background; Cultural, Legal, Ethical Considerations

2 19th Century Psychology Wundt-Lab based-experimental psych Emphasized commonality among people Search for general description of reaction time, attention span, perceptiona Galton Influence of Darwin and emphasis on individual differences and heredity 1884 Anthropometric Lab measured grip strength, memory of form, color discrimination Pioneer of correlation

3 19th Century Psychology (cont.) Cattell Student of Wundt, but interested in individual differences Concept of “mental testing” Instrumental in bringing the idea of psych testing to the U.S.

4 Early 20th Century 1904 Binet & Simon Charge from French education authorities 1916 Terman & Stanford-Binet 1917-18 Army Alpha & Beta Personal Data Sheet/Woodworth 1921 Rorschach 1939 Wechsler & Wechsler-Bellevue Scale

5 Controversies Use with Immigrants Eugenics & the Feebleminded Test bias & Bias in Testing in the Education System E.g., Diana v. California, Larry P. v. Riles Bias in Hiring Griggs v. Duke Power

6 Remedies More representative norm samples Legislation E.g., IDEA, EEOC from Civil Rights Act of 1964

7 Recent Controversies Charges of ethnic & gender bias in SAT & similar tests Standards & accountability emphasis in public schools High-stakes testing Computerized testing

8 Protection of the Public/Ethical Considerations Professional Associations Ethics E.g., APA, NASP APA Standards for Educational & Psychological Testing Test-user Qualifications Level A: Administered with aid of manual and general orientation (achievement & proficiency tests) Level B: Some technical knowledge required (aptitude tests, adjustment inventories) Level C: substantial training required (IQ & projectives)

9 Rights of testtakers Right to informed consent Right to be informed of test findings Right not to have privacy invaded Right to have the least stigmatizing label Right to have findings held confidential

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