How the Greenhouse effect works 1. Different frequencies of light act differently 2.Greenhouse Gasses in Earth’s atmosphere trap infrared light (heat) Same process that makes your car warm on a cold winter day, or heats up a Greenhouse!
Most of the radiant energy from the sun is concentrated in the visible and near-visible parts of the spectrum. The narrow band of visible light, between 400 and 700 nm, represents 43% of the total radiant energy emitted.
Water, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Fuorocarbons (CFCs) What are the major Greenhouse Gasses?
Greenhouse Effect The rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. Because of how they warm our planet, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. Gases include: water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane Trace greenhouse gases are relatively transparent to incoming visible light from the sun, yet opaque to the energy radiated from the earth.
Northern Hemisphere Temperature since 1900 A.D.
What does the future hold? What is “climate variability”? What is “interannual climate variability?” Why is it important? What can we learn about past climate? How are our activities impacting climate?
The isotope paleothermometer The 18 O isotope ratio in water is influenced by temperature – both during evaporation of H 2 O from the ocean and its eventual precipitation on land as rain or snow. At high latitudes, there is a very strong, approximately linear relationship between 18 O and local temperature.
What is “delta 18 O”? The ratio of 18 O/ 16 O in ice is compared to the ratio of 18 O/ 16 O in average ocean water. This comparison is called 18 O. Variations in the 18O of the oxygen in the water molecule, H2O, is used in climate studies
Why does 18 O relate to temperature? This equilibrium is temperature dependent The O 18 /O 16 ratio provides an accurate record of ancient water temperature.
1.UV radiation breaks off a chlorine atom from a CFC molecule. 2.The chlorine atom attacks an ozone molecule (03), breaking it apart and destroying the ozone. 3.The result is an ordinary oxygen molecule (0) and a chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO). 4.The chlorine monoxide molecule (ClO) is attacked by a free oxygen atom releasing the chlorine atom and forming an ordinary oxygen molecule (O). 5.The chlorine atom is now free to attack and destroy another ozone molecule (03). One chlorine atom can repeat this destructive cycle thousands of times.