1 Biomolecules. 2 Macromolecules in Organisms There are four major classes of macromolecules found in living things: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic.
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Presentation on theme: "1 Biomolecules. 2 Macromolecules in Organisms There are four major classes of macromolecules found in living things: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic."— Presentation transcript:
8 Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides covalently bonded together. Divided into 2 groups based on function: * Energy s torage polysaccharides and structural polysaccharides
9 Examples of Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen Cellulose Glucose Monomer
Storage Polysaccharides Long polymers of glucose broken down as needed for energy. EXAMPLES - Glycogen - Starch 10
11 Glycogen Storage form of glucose in animals **Glycogen & starch are similar in structure because BOTH are made of glucose monomers* Stored in liver and muscle cells in humans.
12 Starch Storage form of glucose in plants Plant cells store starch for energy Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet *Glycogen & starch are similar in structure because BOTH are made of glucose monomers*
Structural Polysaccharides Used as a building material in many organisms EXAMPLES - Cellulose - Chitin 13
14 Cellulose It is a major component of plant cell walls Polymer made up of glucose monomers
15 Cellulose Humans & other animals cannot break down cellulose for energy. Still important as a source of fiber. Bacteria have enzymes to break down cellulose
Chitin Major component of fungi cell walls as well as the exoskeleton of arthropods & insects. 16
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE!!!! 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the 4 biomolecules? A) Nucleic Acids B) Lipids C) Nutrients D) Carbohydrates
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE!!!! 2. What is the name of the preferred energy source of most organisms? A) Sucrose B) Lipids C) Lactose D) Glucose
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE!!!! 3. Polymers make up monomers. A) True B) False
20 Lipids Known for their insolubility in water. Known as hydrophobic –”water fearing” Made up of C,H,and O Our bodies need lipids for energy, storage, insulation, and cushioning
21 Function of Lipids Fats store energy, Insulate the body, Cushion and protect organs, Cushion and protect organs, Serve as a component of the cell membrane. Serve as a component of the cell membrane.
Three Groups of Lipids Fats & Oils Phospholipids Steroids 22
Fats & Oils Made up of glycerol + 1 or more fatty acid tails. 23
Fats & Oils Referred to as fat if lipid is solid at room temp. Usually from animal source. Referred to as an oil if lipid is liquid at room temp. Usually from a plant source. 24
Fats & Oils Classified as saturated or unsaturated Saturated fats have been linked to heart disease. 25
26 Phospholipids Primary component of all cell membranes. Have a head that is polar & attracted to water (hydrophilic) Have 2 fatty acid tails that are nonpolar and do not attract water (hydrophobic)
27 Steroids Ex: Cholesterol - found in cell membranes of animal cells Used for hormone production & animlal cell structure. Cholesterol Testosterone Estrogen
28 Four Types of Proteins Structural Contractile Storage Transport
29 Proteins Molecular tools of the cell Functions include: structure (building cells), support, movement, hormones, enzymes, and metabolism. Contain C,H,O, and N
Proteins Amino Acids – Monomers of proteins are amino acids – There are 20 amino acids that combine in different numbers, orders, and arrangements to form proteins.
31 Proteins as Enzymes One very impt function of proteins is to serve as enzymes A catalyst triggers chemical reactions without being used up in the process. Organisms could not maintain homeostasis without functioning enzymes Enzymes trigger chemical reactions by serving as a catalyst