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Chromosomes carry genetic information

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Presentation on theme: "Chromosomes carry genetic information"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chromosomes carry genetic information
Body cells contain two copies of each chromosome. Humans have 23 different chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). Gametes contain one copy of each chromosome.

2 Each chromosome contains many genes.
Genes are made of DNA. Genes code for proteins. Different cells express different genes.

3 Different cells express different genes
Red blood cells express the gene that codes for hemoglobin. Each gene codes for a different protein (one gene : one protein).

4 Humans have approximately 100,000 different genes
The Human Genome Project has cataloged thousands of genes. A computer monitor displays DNA being sequenced. The four colors represent the four chemicals that make up the instructions for DNA. Source:

5 Genes are transcribed to RNA

6 Transcription and Translation: Processes that produce proteins from genes
Transcription: DNA to RNA. RNA is a nucleic acid like DNA. Nucleic acid “language” to nucleic acid language. Translation: RNA to Amino Acid. Nucleic acid “language” to amino acid “language.” Proteins are the product and proteins are traits.

7 The Genetic Code Combinations of bases 3-letters long code for amino acids. The code is redundant but not ambiguous. (different combinations of bases code for the same amino acid)

8 DNA replication uses each strand as a template to make new strands
Original molecule: two strands of DNA forming a double helix. New strands are built by complementary base pairing New strands are identical to original strands

9 Changes in DNA: Mutations
Mutations result from changes in DNA sequence. If a mutation occurs in a gene it can change the resulting protein Most mutations are harmful.

10 A single change at the level of DNA can change protein function
Sickle cell disease. Genes come in different versions. WHY? Each person has two copies of each gene. WHY?

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