Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and Hazardous Waste Management Presented by: Department of Safety & Risk Management University of Rhode Island 177.
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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and Hazardous Waste Management Presented by: Department of Safety & Risk Management University of Rhode Island 177 Plains Road Kingston, RI 02881 Tel: 401-874-2618 Fax: 401-789-5126 E-mail: SRM@etal.uri.edu Web: http://www.uri.edu/safety Instructor: Barbara Ray, Hazmat Coordinator 2006
UPDATE: (Mandatory) RI Fire Code Announcement In all places of assembly (50 or more seats) the following announcement must be made: 1.The emergency exits are located (state locations and point out) 2. All attendees must evacuate when so directed by public announcement or when the fire alarm sounds When: first class, all public seminars
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and Hazardous Waste Management Why is this so important? Protect worker health Safeguard environment Prevent accidents and injuries Prepare for emergencies It’s the law Regulatory compliance prevents fines Receive grants from federal and state agencies Reduce insurance costs
Regulations OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories *(The Lab Standard) Performance Based Protects Worker Health and Safety in the Workplace * based on book Prudent Practices by National Research Council See http:www.nap.edu/books/0309052297.html EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 40 CFR 260-265, 270 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulation Based - no options - follow exact rules Protects Environment
3 and 4 letter Words OSHAEPA RCRACAA BOCACWA NFPAEMS SPCCDEM SWMPCDC
Responsibility and Accountability Everyone Has Responsibility for Chemical Hygiene and Lab Safety and Proper Disposal of Hazardous Waste at the University of Rhode Island President Deans Department Chairs Principal Investigators Laboratory workers Students Department of Safety and Risk Management Chemical Hygiene Officers
Prudent Planning of Experiments Define goals of the experiment Research the hazards of the chemicals involved before use - consult MSDSs, Labels, and reference materials for prudent practice Write Standard Operating Procedures for use of hazardous materials and apparatus Follow safety guidelines in the lab and URI CHP Consider risk assessment, acquisition and storage of chemicals, handling of chemicals and equipment, and disposal of waste
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Document required by federal law in every laboratory in US where hazardous chemicals are in use Laboratory personnel must be familiar with URI’s CHP and laboratory SOPs The Chemical Hygiene Plan provides provisions for protecting personnel from the “health hazards associated with the chemicals present in that laboratory”
Contents of A Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) 1. Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for safe chemical use 2. Control Measures to reduce exposure: ventilation, PPE, hygiene practices 3. Performance testing of hoods and PPE 4. Training: Hazards of chemicals, location of CHP, PEL of chemicals, signs and symptoms of exposure, MSDS and other reference materials 5. Identify operations so hazardous they require prior approval; ex. Highly toxic or highly volatile chemicals 6. Provision for Medical exams: a)If employee shows signs or symptoms; b)If air monitoring concentration>PEL; c)If explosion, large spill or other event results in the potential of exposure 7. Designate Chemical Hygiene Officer 8. Must provide additional protection for particularly hazardous substances: select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, chemicals with high acute toxicity 9. Maintain showers and eyewashes in operable condition. Test periodically. Clean eyewashes weekly
What Does Your Lab Need to Do to Comply? 1. DEVELOP LABORATORY-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN-Follow guidelines in URI generic Chemical Hygiene Plan. 2. Adopt good chemical hygiene and prudent laboratory practices. 3. Make sure chemical Inventory is complete and up to date. 4. Use the inventory to identify those chemicals that meet the definition of carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and acutely hazardous chemicals and “designate areas” for appropriate use. 5. Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). 6. Write Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each lab to minimize occupational exposure to acutely hazardous chemicals, carcinogens and reproductive toxins. 7. Use acutely hazardous chemicals in hoods for proper ventilation control. 8. Store hazardous chemicals by hazard class. 9. Inspect container integrity/condition frequently.
What Does Your Lab Need to Do to Comply? (cont.) 10. Label all containers in lab with chemical name and hazard. No unknown containers. 11. Maintain MSDS for each hazardous chemical 12. Medical Monitoring is required if signs and symptoms of exposure occur. 13. Air monitoring is required if signs and symptoms of exposure occur. 14. Successfully complete the annual lab inspection by SRM. 15. Attend annual training. 16. Follow the URI Laboratory Waste Guide and manage hazardous waste correctly. 17. Plan ahead to prevent accidents and emergencies. 18. Practice Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization
Material Safety Data Sheet Document created by chemical manufacturer, exporter, or distributor. Describes material, it’s risks, and certain protective steps user MUST take Must be kept on file for >30 years Must be available to all actual/potentially exposed employees Supervisors responsible for obtaining and interpreting MSDS for new products Should be up-to-date Employer has responsibility to ensure availability Must be available while personnel are working, without restraint to access
Hazards Evaluation and Risk Assessment Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS Contains information on the chemical identity; manufacturer; physical, chemical, and health hazards; target organ health effects; precautionary measures for safe handling handling and storage; PPE; emergency procedures; and first aid measures All warning labels placed on chemicals in the laboratory should be based on the MSDS
Where to Find MSDS Sources of MSDS: Internet-manufacturers web sites GOOGLE: acetone and MSDS http://www.hazard.com http://uri.chemwatchna.com User name URI, PW 1951
How Does OSHA Define A Hazardous Chemical? Terms found on the MSDS Physical Hazards combustible liquid a compressed gas an explosive an organic peroxide an oxidizer pyrophoric flammable or reactive
For exposure information see:NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards NIOSH=National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1-800-356-4674 www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html Important values from MSDS –PEL – permissible exposure limit – 8 hr TWA –STEL - short-term exposure limit - 15min. TWA –TWA - time weighted average - exposure to chemical –IDLH - immediately dangerous to life/health –CEILING limit - Concentration must not be exceeded for any time period during day –*Exposures must be kept below the PEL or (air) monitoring and medical surveillance are required and other OSHA regulations apply. 29CFR1910.1450
Duration and Frequency of Exposure Single - acute –damage results from a single, short-duration exposure –hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide Intermittent - repeated Long-term - chronic –repeated or long- duration exposure –damage evident after a long latency period –all carcinogens –reproductive toxins –heavy metals and their compounds
Dose-Response Range of concentrations that result in a graded effect between the extremes of no effect and death Dose - amount of chemical Response - effect of the chemical LD 50 - Lethal Dose 50 mg/kg LC 50 - Lethal (air) Concentration 50 ppm or mg/m3
What Is A Toxic Chemical? Toxicity Rating Animal LD 50 (mg/kg) Lethal Dose Ingestion 150 lb. human Example Extremely toxic Less than 5 < 7 dropsDimethyl Mercury Highly toxic 5-507 drops to 1 teaspoon Mercury 29, Sodium azide 27 Moderately toxic 50-5001 teaspoon to 1 ounce Ammonium hydroxide 350, phenol 317 Slightly toxic 500-50001 ounce to 1 pint Methylene chloride 1600, Chloroform 908 Practically non-toxic > 5000> 1 pintEthyl acetate 5620, Ethanol 7060
Guidelines for Evaluating Toxic Chemical Hazards: When to Use the Hood 1.Check the Permissible Exposure Limits and Threshold Limit Values Use the hood if the PEL or TLV < 50 ppm or 100mg/m3 (air concentration) 2.If there is no PEL check the LC 50 (air) values Use the hood if the LC 50 is < 200 ppm or 2000 mg/m3 ( air concentration) 3.If there is no PEL check the LD 50 (oral rat) values Use the hood if the following conditions are met: Solids or nonvolatile liquids <50 ppm Toxic gases or volatile liquids < 500 ppm Olfactory thresholds may not be trustworthy or known. Sources: Developing a Chemical Hygiene Plan, J.A. Young, W. K. Kingsley. G. H. Wahl, American Chemical Society, 1996. (p.15)
Carcinogens Carcinogen: a substance that causes cancer Known carcinogens: benzene, cadmium, coal tar, ethylene oxide, tobacco smoking, radon. Probable carcinogens: acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform. If present at 0.1% in a product carcinogenic ingredient must be listed on MSDS http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc.toc10.html Report on Carcinogens, 11 th edition.
Reproductive Toxins Mutagens - substances that may cause a change in the genetic material of a cell Teratogens - substances that may cause physical or metabolic defects in the fetus- esp. in first trimester Sterility/infertility - male or female Lactation - chemical may be transferred from mother to baby through breast milk CDC website has articles on male and female reproductive hazards http:www.cdc.gov
MSDS Signs and Symptoms of Chemical Exposure Behavior Change Breathing Difficulty Change in Complexion/Skin Color Coughing Drooling Fatigue/weakness Irritation of eyes/nose Headache Nausea Tightness of chest Breathing difficulty Coordination difficulty Dizziness Diarrhea Irritability Light-headedness Sneezing Sweating
Routes of Exposure Inhalation Contact with skin or eyes Ingestion Injection (punctures from sharps and needle sticks ) NO EATING, DRINKING, SMOKING, OR APPLYING COSMETICS IN LABS NO FOOD OR DRINK IN LAB REFRIGERATORS OR MICROWAVES NO CHEMICALS IN FOOD OR BEVERAGE CONTAINERS NO MOUTH PIPETTING OF BIOHAZARDS, HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS, OR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
Minimizing Exposure Avoiding eye injury Avoiding ingestion of Hazardous Chemicals Avoiding Inhalation of Hazardous Chemicals Wash hands frequently Avoiding Injection of Hazardous Chemicals Minimizing Skin Contact Use fume hoods Use PPE: Safety glasses, lab coat, gloves, aprons but remember to remove PPE before leaving lab; don’t take contamination home!
Avoiding Chemical Exposure Administrative Controls Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) Training Documentation Knowledge reading and understanding MSDSs and labels before use of new chemical - know the hazards PPE - gloves, eye protection [safety glasses, safety goggles, face shield], proper foot wear, coat/apron per MSDS recommendation Respirators require pre-approval, fit testing, written plan, medical evaluation and annual re-training - require SRM prior approval
Avoiding Chemical Exposure continued Follow OSHA guidelines for regulated carcinogenic chemicals - see handout Don’t work alone when using hazardous materials and procedures Plan ahead for potential emergencies know location of eye wash and safety showers, fire blankets, fire extinguishers, spill kits, evacuation routes, and MSDSs Engineering Controls Hoods and Ventilation systems Biological safety cabinets Glove boxes
Choose and Use the Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Always select PPE that is right for the task Eye Protection: Face Shield, goggles, safety glasses with side shields. Goggles required when corrosives in use. Preferred when contact lenses in use. Lab Coat, rubber apron Gloves (remove sharp rings from fingers) Select correct material, check permeation time, correct thickness for chemicals in use/application Have a dress code in labs: No exposed mid-riff skin, sandals or open-toed shoes, short shorts. Tie back long hair. Minimize use of rayon fabrics-very flammable
Personal Protective Equipment: Glove Selection Guide GLOVE MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDE CHEMICAL FAMILYBUTYLRUBBERNEOPRENEPVC (VINYL)NITRILENATURAL LATEX AcetatesGNRNRNRNR Acids, inorganicGEEEE Acids, organic EEEEE Acetonitrile, AcrylonitrileGEGSE AlcoholsEENREE AldehydesEGNRS*NR AminesSNRNRFNR Bases, inorganicEEEEE EthersGFNRENR Halogens (liquids)GNRFENR InksGEESF KetonesEGNRNRG Nitro compounds : Nitrobenzene, Nitromethane GNRNRNRNR Oleic AcidEEFENR Phenols EENRNRG QuinonesNREGEE Solvents, AliphaticNRNRFGNR Solvents, AromaticNRNRFFNR Rhode Island Law requires that a sign be posted if latex gloves are used. *Not recommended for Acetaldehyde, use Butyl Rubber S – Superior, E – Excellent, G – Good, F – Fair, NR - Not Recommended
Personal Protective Equipment: Eyewear must meet ANSI z87.1
Hazard Identification: Labels Commercially packaged chemical containers received since 1986 meet current labeling requirements Name, address and telephone number of manufacturer Emergency number Must be in English Base on data on MSDS Write full name, no abbreviations Chemical identification Identity of hazard components Appropriate hazard warnings Immediate use containers need the name of the chemical contents NO “unknowns” or unlabelled containers allowed NFPA: Values range from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (lethal/very dangerous ) Blue (health), Red (fire), Yellow (reactive), White (special) NFPA
Housekeeping Never obstruct access to exits and emergency equipment Clean work areas regularly If children are permitted in labs, i.e. educational activity, make sure there is direct supervision Do not store chemical containers on the floor Secure compressed gas cylinders to walls or benches Do not use floors, stairways or hallways as storage areas Keep minimum amount of chemicals on lab bench. Keep other chemicals in storage cabinet.
Transport of Chemicals Use break- resistant secondary containers Cylinders strapped to a cylinder cart and valve protected No passengers on elevators while transporting chemicals
Storage of Chemicals Keep minimum quantities on hand Label properly Special hazards on label Use explosion-proof refrigerators for flammables Use storage trays or secondary containment to minimize spills from leaking bottles or breaks Store chemicals by hazard class (not in alphabetical order) to eliminate incompatible storage
Storage Areas of Chemicals Must be labeled properly Labels must be accurate; visible Exterior door surfaces must state hazards - [“designated”] areas for OSHA regulated chemicals, reproductive toxins and carcinogens Emergency Contact on Door –add phone # of responsible person in the event of accidental release, exposure, etc.
When is a “Designated Area” Sign Needed? Use designated area sign when these types of chemicals are present: Chemicals of High Toxicity (Acute or Chronic) Carcinogens Reproductive Toxins Warning Designated Area for Handling the following substances with High Acute or Chronic Toxicity, Carcinogenic,Reproductive Toxins Benzene – carcinogen [List substances – identify hazard] Authorized Personnel Only
Working Alone and Unattended Experiments Avoid working alone - develop list of high hazard operations that cannot be done when alone- need prior approval from supervisor Make arrangements for individuals working alone to check on each other Design experiments to prevent the release of hazardous substances in the event of utilities shutting down (power failure) Laboratory lights should be left on at all times Arrangements should be made for someone to check on the operation Information should be posted indicating how to contact the responsible individual
Writing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Required for OSHA regulated chemicals Required for OSHA Select Carcinogens Required for all Reproductive Toxins Required for all Hazardous Chemicals Required for toxic gases especially with NFPA value of 3 or 4 What to put on an SOP: Chemical Name, Hazards, PPE, Administrative Controls, Engineering Controls,Special Handling and Storage Requirements, Lab Specific Procedures-Detail how lab is going to Minimize Exposure, Spill and Accident Procedures, Decontamination Procedures, Waste Disposal Procedures, Location of MSDS, Document that all lab workers (employees and students) have read and understand MSDSs and SOPs
When to Re-Write/Review Standard Operating Procedures New hazardous chemical introduced to lab New hazardous process/equipment: lasers, high voltage, radioactivity, etc. New employee or student Change in procedure Accident or near miss occurs
Acquisition of Chemicals Considerations when ordering chemicals –available from another laboratory –minimum quantity needed –optimize size container for storage – proper management of chemical –time sensitive materials Considerations when receiving chemicals –delivery to departmental offices (personnel trained?) –expectations if there is a spill, stock spill kits –compressed gas deliveries (have cart handy) –think twice before receiving “gifts”. The cost for disposal may outweigh the initial savings
Inventory and Tracking of Chemicals Maintain an up-to-date chemical inventory. If inventory has been bar-coded coordinate with SRM for new additions and deletions Date chemicals when received and again when opened Disposal of chemical if not needed within a reasonable time Containers should be inspected frequently. Replace those in deteriorating condition. Decommission labs before lab personnel leave Develop plan for moving chemicals when labs are renovated Dispose /recycle chemicals before the expiration date Cull from inventory chemicals that require special handling or are time sensitive Examples: Peroxide formers: acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran [O-O]
Record Keeping Chemical Inventory Lists - 30 years All MSDSs - 30 years* Training - 5 years* Exposures - 30 years - keep records of exposure monitoring and medical monitoring* Work-related injuries and illnesses - one year* Training Certificates, inventories, inspection reports, SOPs, etc. should be retained in laboratory * Federal Requirement
Training 29CFR1910.1450, the OSHA Lab Standard requires that employees are to be apprised by training and Information of any hazardous chemical in the work area: At the time of employee’s initial assignment to area Prior to assignments involving new exposures situations All individuals working in labs with chemicals MUST take SRM’s “Prudent Practices in the Laboratory & Hazardous Waste Management” Training (yearly refresher class) ALL other employees with the potential for chemical exposure must take “Hazard Communication” Training (yearly refresher class)
Hazmat Security Keep labs storing chemicals, biohazards and radioactive materials locked when unattended. Allow only authorized personnel in labs. Escort visitors. Keep accurate inventories of hazardous materials and laboratory supplies. Report suspicious behavior to campus police. Call 874-2121 all emergencies
Shipping Hazardous Materials All packages being offered for transport by commercial carrier, air, rail or truck, must follow USDOT regulations. All packages must be packaged, marked, labeled, and documented properly. See http://www.uri.edu/safety for details.
Safety Showers and Eyewashes 1.Run plumbed eyewashes weekly to remove bacteria and dust. Use clean wipe if not plumbed. 2.Inspect/test all units annually for mechanical performance. Need to use containment shower curtain and bucket. Need plumber for old systems to make sure shut-off valve works. 3. Locate emergency equipment within 10 second walk from hazard; level- no stairs or ramps. 4.Water must be tepid. Check temperature when testing. 5.Align flow of eyewashes using chart 6. The drain dilemma if no drain then use of shower can make trip hazard; if drain -then need acid neutralization tank. These have maintenance issues and not widely used any more. Reference: ANSI Z358.1 Emergency Eye Wash and Shower Equipment
Design of New Buildings Avoid safety issues of the past: 1.Proper loading dock for receipt and pick-up of chemicals 2.Proper ventilation in stockrooms - 20 air changes/hr. 3.Proper ventilation in labs – 10 air changes/hr 4.Adequate eyewashes and showers 5.Store more flammable solvents in stockrooms, not individual labs. 6.Take field trips-UCONN, PFIZER 7.Develop concept for all the new buildings as a complex 8. Achieve economies of scale by centralizing, not duplicating facilities: stockrooms, instrument rooms, wash-down hood, etc.
Role of the Safety Committees 1. Establish Departmental Safety Committees 2. Track injuries, accidents, fires, explosions in teaching and research labs. Try to prevent recurrence of accidents and injuries. 3. Review teaching lab experiments for hazards. Substitute less dangerous chemicals and procedures where feasible. 4. Report dangerous conditions to Facilities Services for repairs and maintenance. 5. Establish lock-out /tagout procedures when hoods and other equipment are taken out of services. Use Signs, notification. 6. Identity and fix those things within the department that you can fix. Get rid of old equipment that sparks or has damaged cords.
Biosafety Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites All work with infectious agents must be pre- authorized by the URI Biosafety Committee http://www.absa.org http://www.cdc.gov Use PPE, Hazard Communication, biological safety cabinets, containment, frequent hand washing, disinfection Infectious Agents (plant or animal) are categorized in risk groups based on their relative risks BSL-1: biological agents pose low risk to personnel and the environment; unlikely to cause disease in healthy workers, plants or animals BSL-2: biological agents that pose moderate risk to personnel and the environment; rarely cause infection that would lead to serious disease BSL-3: infectious agents may cause serious or lethal disease by exposure by inhalation BSL-4: high risk of life threatening disease
Common OSHA Violations 1.Failure to communicate hazards of chemicals 2. Unlabelled containers 3. Lack of PPE or incorrect PPE 4. Lack of training of new employees or when hazard changes 5. Food and beverage containers in areas where chemical exposure is possible.
URI Environmental Principles 1. Comply with all applicable regulations 2. Educate and train all personnel on programs and procedures 3. Minimize University impact on the environment and surrounding community (SPCC and SWMP) 4. Continually reduce URI impact to the environment by implementation of pollution prevention and waste minimization 5. Develop environmental management systems (EMS)
Green Chemistry: EPA 12 Principles 1.Prevent waste 2.Design safer chemicals and products 3.Design less hazardous chemical syntheses 4.Use renewable feedstocks 5.Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents 6.Avoid chemical derivatives 7. Maximize atom economy 8. Use safer solvents and reaction Conditions 9. Increase energy efficiency 10. Design chemicals and products to degrade after use 11. Analyse in real time to prevent pollution 12. Minimize the potential for accidents Prudent Practice: Since chemicals are “cradle to grave”. Buy, use, store, and dispose the minimum amount.
EPA’s Hierarchy of Pollution Prevention Source Elimination and Reduction –Source elimination of waste stream –Chemical recovery ( solvent distillation) –Chemical substitution of less hazardous material –Micro-scale experiments –Alternative teaching methods - virtual experiments –Use digital photography rather than wet chemistry Recycling and Reuse –Redistribution of chemicals to new owner Treatment – render less hazardous prior to disposal Disposal
EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Reactive reacts w/ air or water Toxic highly toxic - LD50 <50mg/kg carcinogen, fatal RI toxic LD50 < 5000mg/kg Listed i.e. pesticides pyridine, toluene Wastes are considered hazardous if they exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: Corrosive RCRA: pH 12.5 Sewer prohibited: pH 9.5 Ignitable Flash Point <93°C
Disposal of Chemicals Containers should be: –compatible with waste –clean, sturdy, leak proof –closed, tight-fitting –appropriate size –under control of person producing waste –label with Hazardous Waste Label Hazardous Waste Label : –Identify hazardous waste –Write full chemical names, no abbreviations –list all components and percentages –identify hazard properties –name, location and phone number of generator –remove extraneous labels/bar codes
Disposal of Chemicals continued Hazardous Waste Accumulation Areas: –Located in the lab –Clearly marked –Segregate incompatibles –Secondary Containment –Spill kit (spill pads, sand) –Emergency information posted –Maximum storage: 55 gallons or 1 quart of (“P”, acutely hazardous waste –Pick-up for Disposal: SRM is responsible for retrieval and transport When bottle is “full”, arrange for immediate disposal Fax form 789-5126 and call 874-2618 Container is labeled Remove bar code labels Knowledgeable user available for pick-up
Disposal of Chemicals HCL /H 2 O hydrochloric acid Wrong WayRight Way Crawford255 Gregory 4 L total 50% water 50%
Hazardous Waste Satellite Accumulation Area-Label all bottles at first use!!!
Source Reduction and other ways to Minimize Hazardous Waste Minimize chemical orders –just-in-time ordering, do not overstock, buy smallest feasible sizes Strategies to avoid multi-hazard waste –substitution of materials Minimize hazardous waste –micro-scale work –step-by-step planning for minimization –substitution of less toxic chemicals
Common EPA Hazardous Waste Violations in Labs 1. Waste not “at or near point of generation” 2. Unknowns = unlabelled waste containers 3. Abandoned waste - have check out procedure for all chemicals when students or staff leave the lab. 4. Containers open – 15 minute rule 5. Incompatible wastes not segregated. 6. Satellite waste accumulation area not designated. 7. Too much waste in satellite area > 55 gallons or 1 quart of acutely hazardous,”P,” waste Fines = $32,500/ violation/day
Fire Code: Chemical Storage 1. There is a maximum quantity of hazardous chemicals that is allowed in a building. There is a maximum quantity of chemicals that can be stored in any given fire control zone. The type of chemicals determine the f ire rating, 2hour, 4 hour, etc. of doors and other building materials that is required. The amount of chemicals that can be stored in a laboratory is limited. Many fire jurisdictions restrict this working quantity to a one week supply of flammable and combustible liquids. Most of the flammable/combustible chemicals should be in “inside storage rooms”, “[stockrooms]”, separated from other occupancies, with high rates of ventilation. The exhaust ventilation must be powered by a back-up generator. NFPA 3&4 gases require gas cabinets with sensor alarms to detect leaks. NFPA 45 Laboratories > 10,000 sq. ft prohibited unless sprinklered. Instructional and research laboratories have different allowed quantities of flammable/combustible chemicals. Reference: NFPA 30 (OSHA 1910.106) Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
Fire Code: Flash/Boiling Points for NFPA Categories Flash Point Boiling Point Boiling Point Examples Type˚F˚C˚F˚C Class IA<73<22.8<100<37.8Ethyl ether, isopentane Class IB<73<22.8>100>37.8Acetone, ethanol, toluene, gasoline Class IC73-10022.8-37.8MIBK, xylene Class II100-14037.8-60#2 fuel oil, kerosene Class IIIA140-20060-93.3Cyclohexanol, aniline Class IIIB>200>93.3ethylene glycol Flash Point: Minimum temperature at which a liquid or solid emits vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the solid or liquid.
Fire Code: Maximum Quantities of Chemicals Allowed in Laboratories* Lab unit hazard class Flammable, Combustible Liquid Class Max/100 sq.ft.Max/lab Without Sprinklers Max/lab With Sprinklers A (High)1 I,II,IIIa 10 gallons 20 gallons 300 gallons 400 gallons 600 gallons 800 gallons B (Moderate)1 I,II,IIIA 5 gallons 10 gallons 150gallons 200 gallons 300 gallons 400 gallons C (Low)1 I,II,IIIA 2 gallons 4gallons 75 gallons 100gallons 150 gallons 200 gallons D (Minimum)1 I,II,IIIA 1.1 gallons 37 gallons 75 gallons Flammables storage cabinets are designed to contain fire for 10 minutes to provide you time to escape. Keep doors shut, bungs in place unless mechanically ventilated. Quantity = stored + in use + waste. *Quantity doubles if flammable storage cabinets in use.
Distribution of Chemicals in Buildings: Max. Qty. Allowed Per Floor Floor level Above grade % of Max. Allowable Qty. of entire bldg. # Control area per floor Fire barrier rating (hours) 612.522 5 22 4 22 35021 27531 110041 -1, below grade7531
Fire Safety in Labs PROPER CHEMICAL USE AND STORAGE Store minimum amount of flammable chemicals in lab Design new buildings with proper stockrooms and use them Store flammable materials properly in flammables cabinet Eliminate sources of static electricity and sparking equipment Use proper rate of ventilation Frequently check peroxide formers Do not mix incompatible chemicals Keep picric acid wet! Check on Lithium Battery Recalls- Dell, Apple, Kycera phones
Chemical Accidents A copy of the MSDS should go to the hospital with a victim who has been contaminated. File accident report with Human Resources (staff) in the case of a serious chemical exposure. Students file reports at Potter Health Clinic. General decontamination procedure is to flush affected area with water for a minimum of 15 minutes.
Responding to Accidents and Emergencies Evacuate –assess hazards and dangers- if unknown, assume the worst and evacuate Confine –Close doors and isolate area Report –from a safe place call 874-2121 for emergency personnel to clean-up spill and provide medical attention Secure –area until emergency personnel arrive
All Emergencies To report spills, fires, medical assistance, etc. call campus police 874-2121 which is monitored 24/7 Call Safety and Risk Management at 874-2618 for routine calls and technical information All Emergencies
QUIZ Please take the quiz at home Review the cartoon. If you have any of these problems in your lab please correct them. TAKE TIME TO PRACTICE SAFE SCIENCE!