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S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion.

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Presentation on theme: "S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion."— Presentation transcript:

1 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Experimental Characterisation of a Downdraft Gasifier Fueled with Woodchar/Woodchips Mixtures

2 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals Biomass gasification is basically a conversion of solid fuels (wood, wood-waste, agricultural residues, charcoal, etc.) into a combustible gas mixture normally called Producer Gas. The process is typically used for various biomass materials and it involves partial combustion of such biomass. Partial combustion process occurs when air supply (O2) is less than adequate for the combustion of biomass to be completed.

3 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals Biomass is usually composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In addition there may be nitrogen and sulphur, but since these are present only in small quantities they will be disregarded in the following discussion. In the types of gasifiers considered here, the solid fuel is heated by combustion of a part of the fuel. The combustion gases are then reduced by being passed through a bed of fuel at high temperature. In complete combustion, carbon dioxide is obtained from the carbon and water from the hydrogen. Oxygen from the fuel will of course be incorporated in the combustion products, thereby decreasing the amount of combustion air needed.

4 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals Oxidation of carbon, or combustion, is described by the following chemical reaction formulae (auto thermal gasification): C + O 2 CO kJ/mol (exo-thermic) C + ½ O 2 CO kJ/mol (exo-thermic) In all types of gasifiers, CO 2 and H 2 O (vap.) are converted (reduced) as much as possible to CO, H 2 and CH 4, which are the main combustible components of producer gas.

5 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals The most important reactions that take place in the reduction zone of a gasifier between the different gaseous and solid reactants are the following C + CO 2 2 CO kJ/mol (Boudouard, endo-th.) C + H 2 O CO + H kJ/mol (water gas reaction, endo-th.) CO 2 + H 2 CO + H 2 O kJ/mol (water gas shift reaction, endo-th.) C + 2 H 2 CH kJ/mol (methanisation, exo-thermic)

6 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals Despite the substoichiometric conditions prevailing everywhere, oxidation of CO and H 2 may locally take place according to: CO + ½ O 2 CO kJ/mol (exo-thermic) H 2 + ½ O 2 H 2 O kJ/mol (exo-thermic) Though they produce heat, to the advantage of the auto-thermal gasification, they are undesired because the producer gas heat-value is lowered.

7 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals The equilibrium of above seen water gas (heterogeneous) and water gas shift (homogeneous) reactions largely govern the final gas composition. On the other hand, the equilibrium composition of the gas will only be reached when the reaction rate and the time for reaction are adequate. Below 700 °C the reaction rates proceed so slowly that the product gas composition is frozen : once formed, the gaseous products do not further react with each other. Unfortunately, this applies also to the tars, which build up in the gas, since they cannot undergo any reduction.

8 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL Manufacturer: ANKUR Ltd. located near the ancient Sama Jakat Naka Baroda , Gujarat, India web site: ankurscientific.com

9 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL

10 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL To a Gas Engine Or Gas Turbine Conceptual Sequence of Processes from Biomass to End Products Product Gas Cleaning Equipment

11 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL Fuel Parameters, Gasifier Performance, Product Gas, Slag, Emissions Monitoring - Physico-chemical characterisation of fuel (woodchips and charcoal-woodchips mix) - Air/Fuel Equivalence Ratio - Inner temperature profile (overall gasifier) - Pressure drop sand filter) - Product gas temperature gasifier outlet) - Water temperature scrubbers) - Product gas flow rate gasifier outlet) - Water pressure scrubbers) - Inner gasifier pressure - Water flow rate scrubbers) - Clean product gas chemical composition - Condensate chemical composition - Slag composition and mass flow rate - Condensate mass flow rate - Exhaust gas composition and mass flow rate gas engine outlet) - Co-generation thermal power overall equipment and gas engine)

12 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL HEARTH LOAD OPTIMISED FOR MINIMUM TAR CONTENT Temperature Distributions for Varying Fuel Typologies hu hu Coal Coal S-2 S-3 S-4 TC3 TC2 TC1 TC4

13 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL HEARTH LOAD OPTIMISED FOR MAX GAS ENERGY Temperature Distributions for Varying Fuel Typologies hu hu Coal Coal S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 TC3 TC2 TC1 TC4 S-1 hu S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal Coal TC3 TC2 TC1 TC4

14 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Product Gas Heat Values for Varying Fuel Typologies TC1 S-2 S-3 S-4 hu S-2 hu Coal Coal

15 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Product Gas Flow Rate for Varying Fuel Typologies TC1 S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal S-2

16 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Gas Thermal Power for Varying Fuel Typologies TC1 S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal Coal

17 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Electric Power Generation for Varying Fuel Typologies S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal Coal

18 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Tar and Particulate Levels for Varying Fuel Typologies S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal Coal

19 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Tar and Particulate Levels for Varying Fuel Typologies S-2 S-3 S-4 hu Coal Coal IN ORDER TO QUANTIFY THE LOWER CONCENTRATIONS OF TARS, THE VALUES REPORTED ARE LIMITED TO SV HIGHER THAN 0.25 M/S

20 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Conclusions The experimental results above presented can be considered as safely demonstrative of the actual possibility, provided by the fixed-bed downdraft gasification technology, of successfully pursuing a widespread territorial distribution of micro CHP (combined heat and power) generating plants fueled by wood/charcoal mixtures. One main outcome of the investigation has been that of unequivocally assessing the great potential, for a given gasifier technology, residing in its functional optimisation, to be achieved by imposing correct operative parameters, most important among all, the hearth load.

21 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Conclusions Without the need of re-designing or complicating an intrinsically simple and reliable basic technology, the performance parameters such as: power plant efficiency product gas yield and, most importantly, tar and particulate content in the gas can be optimised by means of a careful functional-variables setting.

22 S OCIETA I TALIANA B IOENERGIA E A GROINDUSTRIA 1° Convegno SIBA Salerno, 22-23/10/07 F. Pittaluga – University of Genoa DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Lab. - Conclusions The outcome of pursuing a suitable mixing of woodchips with charcoal has turned out extremely beneficial under all respects: gas yield and gas energy flow, increasing almost proportionally with the increase of charcoal percentage decrease of tar content in the product gas, thanks to the higher hearth temperatures thermal nobilitation of lower heat content woodchips, possibly even of green waste too From this perspective, a renewed interest in charcoal production, with up- to-date technologies (e.g. auto-thermal retorts) could be conceived, with interesting environmental and economic returns.


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