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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Extrasolar Planetary Systems
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Planet Detection Direct: Pictures or spectra of the planets themselves Indirect: Measurements of stellar properties revealing the effects of orbiting planets allowing us to infer the presence of an orbiting planet.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Gravitational Tugs The Sun and Jupiter orbit around their common center of mass. The Sun therefore wobbles around that center of mass with the same period as Jupiter.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Gravitational Tugs Sun’s motion around solar system’s center of mass depends on tugs from all the planets. Astronomers who measured this motion around other stars could determine masses and orbits of all the planets.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Astrometric Technique (indirect) We can detect planets by measuring the change in a star’s position in the sky. However, these tiny motions are very difficult to measure (~0.001 arcsecond).
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Doppler or Radial Velocity Technique (indirect) Measuring a star’s Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us only. Current techniques can measure motions as small as 1 m/s (walking speed!). Jupiter causes a 12m/s motion in our sun so we can easily detect Jupiter size planets. Earth causes 0.1 m/s change so cannot detect Earth like-planets yet.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. First Extrasolar Planet Detected Doppler shifts of star 51 Pegasi indirectly reveal planet with 4-day orbital period Short period means small orbital distance Can measure mean orbits to get an accurate period. First extrasolar planet to be discovered (1995)
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. First Extrasolar Planet Detected The planet around 51 Pegasi has a mass similar to Jupiter’s, despite its small orbital distance. This is strange. The Nebula Model says gas giants form beyond the frost line, but this planet orbits really close to its star where it could not have formed.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question A.It has a planet orbiting at less than 1 AU. B.It has a planet orbiting at greater than 1 AU. C.It has a planet orbiting at exactly 1 AU. D.It has a planet, but we do not have enough information to know its orbital distance. Suppose you found a star with the same mass as the Sun moving back and forth with a period of 16 months. What could you conclude?
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Transits and Eclipses (indirect) A transit is when a planet crosses in front of a star. The resulting eclipse reduces the star’s apparent brightness and tells us the planet’s radius. The duration of the dip tells us the radius of the star. The duration of the downward\upward slopes tell us the radius of the planet. The planet reflects some light toward us when it is partially behind the star, we lose this light when the planet goes behind the star so we get a second mini dip every orbit which is much weaker.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Direct Detection Special techniques for concentrating or eliminating bright starlight are enabling the direct detection of planets.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. How do extrasolar planets compare with those in our solar system?
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Measurable Properties Orbital period, distance, and shape Planet mass, size, and density Composition
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Orbits of Extrasolar Planets Most of the detected planets have orbits smaller than Jupiter’s. Planets at greater distances are harder to detect with the Doppler technique.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Orbits of Extrasolar Planets Most of the detected planets have greater mass than Jupiter. Planets with smaller masses are harder to detect with the Doppler technique.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Planets: Common or Rare? More than one in ten stars examined so far have turned out to have planets. Our techniques are BIAS and pick out massive planets that orbit close to their star. The other stars may still have smaller (Earth-sized) planets or planets further out in their solar system that cannot be detected using current techniques.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Surprising Characteristics Some extrasolar planets have highly elliptical orbits. Some massive planets orbit very close to their stars: “hot Jupiters.”
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Hot Jupiters Hot Jupiters may behave like comets have two tails. Starlight passing through these tails can be used to measure the composition of atmosphere of these planets.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Do we need to modify our theory of solar system formation?
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Question : Suppose we have a hot Jupiter that orbits once every 10 days. It also rotates once every 10 days. The planet has no axial tilt and a perfectly circular orbit. How many seasons does it have? A.0 B.1 C.2 D.4
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Revisiting the Nebular Theory Nebular theory predicts that massive Jupiter-like planets should not form inside the frost line (at << 5 AU). The discovery of “hot Jupiters” has forced a reexamination of nebular theory. “Planetary migration” or gravitational encounters may explain “hot Jupiters.”
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Planetary Migration A young planet’s motion can create waves in a planet- forming disk. Computer models show that matter in these waves can tug on a planet, causing its orbit to migrate inward.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Gravitational Encounters Close gravitational encounters between two massive planets can eject one planet while flinging the other into a highly elliptical orbit. Multiple close encounters with smaller planetesimals can also cause inward migration.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question What happens in a gravitational encounter that allows a planet’s orbit to move inward? A.It transfers energy and angular momentum to another object which must move outwards. B.The gravity of the other object forces the planet to move inward. C.The planet gains mass from the other object, causing its gravitational pull to become stronger.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Modifying the Nebular Theory Observations of extrasolar planets have shown that the nebular theory was incomplete. Effects such as planet migration and gravitational encounters might be more important than previously thought.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. As of July 2011 We have detected 565 extrasolar planets. There are 34 stars with two planets, 10 with three, 5 with four, 1 with five, 2 with six, and 1 with eight. The recently launch Kepler Spacecraft is designed to monitor hundreds of thousands of stars for transiting planets. It has just starts its mission and has found only a few extrasolar planets. The Kepler mission data suggests that there are about 50 billion planets in our galaxy.
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