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WAP Wireless Application Protocol CSI 668 Professor Meihua, Chen Presented by Min, Wu April 04,2001.

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Presentation on theme: "WAP Wireless Application Protocol CSI 668 Professor Meihua, Chen Presented by Min, Wu April 04,2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 WAP Wireless Application Protocol CSI 668 Professor Meihua, Chen Presented by Min, Wu April 04,2001

2 Content Background WAP Architecture WAE WML & WMLScript & WTA WTP & WSP & WDP & WTLS Future of WAP

3 Background1 What’s WAP?( URL: ) An open, global standard that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services instantly. A standard created by wireless and Internet companies around the world to make accessing the Internet as easy and convenient as using a cellular phone

4 Background2 Why WAP? Wireless networks and phones have specific needs and requirements low bandwidth high latency connection availability wireless devices have small screens, limited resource and a small, multifunction keypad.

5 WAP Architecture Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Gateway WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML- Script WTAI Etc. HTTPWSP/WTP

6 What’s WAP Gateway? A software located on a server of a mobile operator Handles requests from WAP phone. Responsible for compiling the WML pages into bytecode (WMLC) which can be understood by a WAP device. Takes care of the conversion required during WTLS/SSL sessions.

7 WAP Architecture(continued) WAP Application Server Content Applicatio n Logic WML Decks with WML-Script WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML-Script WTAI Etc. WSP/WTP

8 About WAP Server A combined web server and WAP gateway. Combining for security. Gateway is a weak point. Accessing secure service(decrypts WTLS & encrypts SSL ) When data returns(decrypts SSL & encrypts WTLS)


10 Why is HTTP/HTML not enough? Wireless network NNN Interactive N NN Interact ive Internet Enter name: 01001101 00111101 10010011 01101101 11010100 10011010 Content encoding HTTP/HTML WAP in order to use the bandwidth as efficiently as possible


12 HTML JavaScript HTTP TLS - SSL TCP/IP UDP/IP Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Application Environment (WAE) Session Layer (WSP) Security Layer (WTLS) Transport Layer (WDP) Other Services and Applications Transaction Layer (WTP) SMSUSSDCSD IS-136 CDMA CDPDPDC-P Etc.. Bearers:

13 Sample Configurations of WAP Technology

14 WAP Benefits An Internet-based programming model WML - Wireless Markup Language A protocol stack that is optimized for the wireless environment a “microbrowser” optimized for wireless devices Bearer Independence & Device Independence The endorsement of over 90% of all handset manufacturers

15 WAE ( Wirleless Application environment) Wireless Markup Language (WML) WMLScript Wireless Telephony Application (WTA) Push

16 WML Structure DECKS and CARDS. When accessed from a mobile phone, all the cards in a page are downloaded from the WAP server. Navigation between the cards is done by the phone computer - inside the phone - without any extra access trips to the server. The maximum size of a WML deck varies. Nokia 7110 is 1397 bytes (including images) Ericsson R320 is 3000 bytes(excluding images)

17 WML Header

18 WML Tags (1) The Complete WML DTD: d.asp

19 WML Tags (2)

20 WML Tags (3) 80 pixels in width 50 pixels in height viewable on most devices.

21 WML Tags(5) Formatting Tables

22 WML Tags (4) WML Syntax Site: http://fsinfo.cs.uni- m

23 What is WMLScript? WMLScript is the scripting language used in WML pages language WMLScript is a light version of the JavaScript WML scripts are not embedded in the WML pages. WML pages only contains references to script URLs

24 What is WMLScript?(contd.) WMLScript takes advantage of pre- compiled standard libraries. WMLScript is compiled into byte code on the server before it is sent to the WAP browser

25 What is WMLScript used for? WMLScript is used to validate user input WMLScript is used to generate message boxes and dialog boxes locally, to view error messages and confirmations faster WMLScript is used to access facilities of the user agent

26 WMLScript Standard Library Lang - VM constants, general-purpose math functionality, etc. String - string processing functions URL - URL processing Browser - WML browser interface Dialog - simple user interface Float - floating point functions

27 About WTA

28 WirelessTelephony Application Tools for building telephony applications Designed primarily for: Network Operators / Carriers Equipment Vendors Network security and reliability a major consideration

29 WTA(Contd.) Some WAP browsers support WTAI functionality, which means that it is possible for a user to click on a link to a phone number, and then the WAP session is terminated and the phone starts dialing the number. (via WTA server)

30 What’s new with WAP1.2? PUSH push content from a server to one or many clients through a Push Proxy Gateway. Unlike an SMS, which also is pushed to the clients, a phone will only accept content from a 'trusted' source.

31 Push Increase the usability of WAP Make it more flexible than the Internet Push can take advantage of session headers Server knows when client can accept a push

32 Wireless Transaction Service Access Point Wireless Datagram Protocol Bearer Service D Bearer Service C Bearer Service B Transport Service Access Point (TSAP) Bearer Service A Physical Layer Air Link Technology Wireless Transaction Protocol Wireless Session Protocol Wireless Session Service Access Point WCMP

33 WSP Overview Provides shared state between client and server used to optimize content transfer Provides semantics and mechanisms based on HTTP 1.1 Enhancements for WAE, wireless networks and “low-end” devices Compact encoding Push Efficient negotiation

34 Wireless Transaction Protocol Purpose: Provide efficient request/reply based transport mechanism suitable for devices with limited resources over networks with low to medium bandwidth. Provides reliable data transfer based on request/reply paradigm

35 Wireless Transaction Protocol Advantages Operator Perspective - Load more subscribers on the same network due to reduced bandwidth utilization. Individual User - Performance is improved and cost is reduced. uses the service primitives T-TRInvoke.req.cnf..ind.res T-TRResult.req.cnf.ind.res T-Abort.req.ind

36 Client Server Invoke Ack Result Ack T-TRInvoke.req T-TRResult.ind T-TRInvoke.cnf T-TRResult.res (PDUs) T-TRInvoke.ind T-TRResult.req T-TRInvoke.res T-TRResult.cnf

37 WDP Services and Protocols WDP (Datagram) provides a connection-less, unreliable datagram service WDP is replaced by UDP when used over an IP network layer. WDP over IP is UDP/IP uses the Service Primitive T-UnitData.req.ind

38 WTLS Internal Architecture Record Protocol Handshake Protocol Alert Protocol Application Protocol Change Cipher Spec Protocol Transaction Protocol (WTP ) Datagram Protocol (WDP/UDP) Bearer networks WTLS Record protocol

39 WTLS Specifies a framework for secure connections, using protocol elements from common Internet security protocols like SSL and TLS. Provides security facilities for encryption, strong authentication, integrity, and key management Provides end-to-end security between protocol end points

40 WTLS(contd.) Provides connection security for two communicating applications Lightweight and efficient protocol with respect to bandwidth, memory and processing power Employs special adapted mechanisms for wireless usage Long lived secure sessions Optimised handshake procedures Provides simple data reliability for operation over datagram bearers

41 Bearers Bearers currently supported by WAP GSM SMS, USSD, C-S Data, GPRS IS-136 R-Data, C-S Data, Packet CDMA SMS, C-S Data PDC C-S Data, Packet PHS C-S Data CDPD iDEN SMS, C-S Data, Packet FLEX and ReFLEX DataTAC

42 Future and Problems Will WAP last long? GPRS(56kb/s – 115kb/s) GSM(9.6kb/s) What happens when HTTP and High- speed transmissions become available to wireless devices? WAP Site:

43 Thank You !

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