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Arrays

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**Introduction to Arrays**

An array is used to process a collection of data of the same type Examples: A list of names A list of temperatures Why do we need arrays? Imagine keeping track of 5 test scores, or 100, or in memory How would you name all the variables? How would you process each of the variables?

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Arrays An array is a collection of data elements that are of the same type (e.g., a collection of integers, collection of characters, collection of doubles).

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Array Applications Given a list of test scores, determine the maximum and minimum scores. Read in a list of student names and rearrange them in alphabetical order (sorting). Given the height measurements of students in a class, output the names of those students who are taller than average.

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**Array Declaration Syntax:**

<type> <arrayName>[<array_size>] Ex. int Ar[10]; The array elements are all values of the type <type>. The size of the array is indicated by <array_size>, the number of elements in the array. <array_size> must be an int constant or a constant expression. Note that an array can have multiple dimensions.

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**Array Declaration // array of 10 uninitialized ints int Ar[10]; -- Ar**

4 5 6 3 2 8 9 7 1 1 2 3 4 5

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**Subscripting Declare an array of 10 integers:**

int Ar[10]; // array of 10 ints To access an individual element we must apply a subscript to array named Ar. A subscript is a bracketed expression. The expression in the brackets is known as the index. First element of array has index 0. Ar[0] Second element of array has index 1, and so on. Ar[1], Ar[2], Ar[3],… Last element has an index one less than the size of the array. Ar[9] Incorrect indexing is a common error.

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**Subscripting 1 // array of 10 uninitialized ints int Ar[10];**

int x = Ar[3]; 1 -- -- 1 Ar 4 5 6 3 2 8 9 7 Ar[4] Ar[5] Ar[6] Ar[3] Ar[0] Ar[2] Ar[8] Ar[9] Ar[7] Ar[1]

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**Loops And Arrays for-loops are commonly used to step through arrays**

Example: for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) { cout << score[i] << " off by " << (max – score[i]) << endl; } could display the difference between each score and the maximum score stored in an array Last index is (size – 1) First index is 0

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**Variables and Declarations**

Most compilers do not allow the use of a variable to declare the size of an array Example: cout << "Enter number of students: "; cin >> number; int score[number]; This code is illegal on many compilers

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**Subscripting Example //For loop to fill & print a 10-int array**

int main ( ) { int index, ar[10]; // array for 10 integers // Read in 10 elements. cout << "Enter 10 integers: "; for(index = 0; index < 10; index ++) cin >> ar[index]; cout << endl; cout << "The integers are "; cout << ar[index] << " "; return 0; }

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**Array Element Manipulation**

Consider int Ar[10], i = 7, j = 2, k = 4; Ar[0] = 1; Ar[i] = 5; Ar[j] = Ar[i] + 3; Ar[j+1] = Ar[i] + Ar[0]; Ar[Ar[j]] = 12; cin >> Ar[k]; //where the next input value is 3 -- 8 6 1 Ar 5 3 12 4 2 9 7 Ar[4] Ar[5] Ar[6] Ar[3] Ar[0] Ar[2] Ar[8] Ar[9] Ar[7] Ar[1]

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**Array Initialization 6 -1 Ar[3] = -1;**

int Ar[10] = {9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0}; Ar[3] = -1; 8 7 6 9 Ar 4 3 2 5 1 6 -1 8 7 -1 9 Ar 4 3 2 5 1 6

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