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© Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-1 Case Study - University of New Mexico Demographics –Over 120 buildings on major campus. –Spread over.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-1 Case Study - University of New Mexico Demographics –Over 120 buildings on major campus. –Spread over."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-1 Case Study - University of New Mexico Demographics –Over 120 buildings on major campus. –Spread over 600 acres. –Includes hospital that is separately funded. –Additional 20 houses and businesses in the neighborhood are UNM owned and occupied. –Branch campuses in Gallup, Taos, Los Alamos, Santa Fe and Valencia.

2 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-2 Case Study - University of New Mexico (Cont.) –Separately funded Athletics Complex and Research Park about 2 miles south of main campus. –Buildings - everything from relatively modern to “historical buildings” with 2-3 foot solid concrete walls. –Utility tunnels on main campus. –40,000 students, staff and faculty. –Total of about 14,000 offices, classrooms and laboratories. –All in an urban area.

3 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-3 Case Study - University of New Mexico Key requirements –Make data outlets as pervasive as voice outlets. Ultimately 14,000 - 15,000 devices. –All devices to have access to all academic and administrative services, including Internet access. –“Electronic management” mandates reliability for mission critical applications (hospital, registration, payroll etc).

4 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-4 Case Study - University of New Mexico (Cont.) –Internet access for main campus and branches. LANs at branch campuses should be treated as a separate issue. –Data, voice and video access to athletics complex and research. –Scalable, flexible, expandable, manageable etc, etc.

5 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-5 Case Study - UNM - Constraints Original network - 1,500 connections using coaxial cable network and Ungerman_Bass of headends. Protocols supported - TCP/IP, SNA, BISYNCH, IPX, DECNET, LAT, APPLETALK.

6 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-6 Case Study - UNM - Constraints (Cont.) Funding - $1.5M first year, $0.5M/yr for 4 years thereafter for a total of $3.5M for infrastructure (inter and intrabuilding cabling, 14,000 wall plates, electronics for about 9,000 active devices). No increase in networking staff for implementation and management of a network that will grow from 1,500 to 14,000 connections.

7 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-7 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media Intrabuilding cabling –Category 5 UTP. –2 cables of 4 pairs each (receive/transmit, 2 spares) from wiring center to wall plate. –1 wall plate in office < 100 sq ft, 2 or more wall plates in larger offices.

8 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-8 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) –Secured wiring center per floor –Star wiring from wiring center to wall plates. –Plenum UTP used over ceilings. –Wiring center includes patching capability to change topology if needed.

9 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-9 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) Scheduling of intrabuilding cabling –3 “problem” buildings assigned high priority for rewiring by the computing organization for “self protection”. –Buldings with few or no connections were prioritized for recabling by the Provost based upon the perceived institutional need. This helps the “why not us ?” question.

10 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-10 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) –Buildings with reliable thinnet ethernet installations were scheduled last. –Rate at which buildings we recabled depended on $’s available, ability of contractor to recable and computer center staff to manage the process, install and activate the electronics.

11 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-11 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) Small (less than a dozen or so people), hard to get to buildings –Not rewired. –Cost of pulling fiber to such buildings usually exceeded $30,000, even if “right of ways” could be obtained. –More cost effective to use modems (33.6 Kbps or even 56Kbps) in such cases. –Too few users to have “economies of scale” even for some of the wireless technologies.

12 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-12 Case Study - UNM - transmission media (Cont.) Recabled by whom? cost? –Sub contractor selected by computer organization. –Subcontractor does installs, computer organization manages the process. –Cost about $200 / wall plate including all labor, all materials, testing, termination and patch panel. Some buildings cost less.

13 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-13 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) Interbuilding cabling –Campus divided into 7 equal size zones. –Each zone includes an important building called a zone hub. –Zone hubs are connected to the campus backbone. –Buildings within a zone are connected to the zone hub. –All interbuilding cabling uses optical fiber. –Cables between a building and its zone hub include 8 multimode and 4 single mode fibers.

14 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-14 Case Study - UNM - Transmission Media (Cont.) –Cables between zone hubs (the backbone) include 48 multimode and 12 single mode fibers. –The extra fibers provide “scalability” for future needs. –In general, fibers strung in existing tunnels and conduits. Conduits had to be installed to some buildings. –Fiber patch panels exist in building wiring centers and zone hubs. This can support any topology and allows any building to be connected to any other building “directly” by appropriate patching.

15 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-15 Case Study - UNM - Logical diagram Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Z6 Z1 Z3Z5 Z0Z4 Z2Z1 Z5 Z0Z4 Z2 Z3 Zone hubs Backbone 48/12 cable 8/4 Cable UTP pairs to devices Building wiring centers Devices

16 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-16 Topology of UNM Network Topology is unconstrained –Star topology within buildings. –Star topology of buildings to zone hub. –Ring topology on main campus (zones 0,3,4,5,6) backbone. –Star topology on north campus (zones 1,2 connected to zone 0).

17 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-17 Topology of UNM Network (Cont.) Ring topology on main campus enabled by existing tunnels. This is important since it provides redundant paths to zone 0 (the computer center) should the backbone fiber bundle be cut in one place. Some time in the future, zones 1 and 2 will be connected to also provide redundant paths on north campus.

18 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-18 Topology of UNM Network (Cont.) Total cost of all intrabuilding fiber was $850,000 (over 100 buildings), including : –The fiber. –Conduits. –Labor. –Fiber termination and testing. –Fiber patch panels of buildings and zone hubs. Done by a subcontractor based on a competitive procurement (RFP process).

19 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-19 Case Study - UNM - Electronics Figure

20 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-20 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) The campus network consists of ethernets and an FDDI network. The FDDI ring is located at the computing center (zone 0) and is only a few feet long. Dual homing FDDI concentrators located at the computing center connect all the other zones to the FDDI ring. Each zone has 2 connections, one to each concentrator. If a connection or a concentrator fails, the other one takes automatically over.

21 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-21 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) The electronics at each zone hub is shown below –One or more ethernet hubs to concentrate devices in the building located where the zone hub is located. –Several 15 port ethernet switches to concentrate ethernets from buildings within the zone. –A router interconnecting the FDDI network and ethernet switches. –The routers support all requied protocols in addition to TCP/IP. 100 Mbps FDDI 10 Mbps Enet 10 Mbps Router Ether switch Ether switch Ether hub To Conc. 1 To Conc. 2 Enets from other buildings Devices in zone hub building

22 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-22 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) The electronics in each building consist of one or more ethernet hubs. Concentration factors are –No more than about 100 devices on an ethernet hub. –Up to 15 hubs connected to an ethernet switch (15x100 max). –No more than 4 ethernet switches per router (4x15x100 max). –7 zones total (7x4x15x100 or 42,000 max devices).

23 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-23 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) At the computing center (zone 0), the FDDI network is connected to a variety of services including –Administrative computers. –Academic computers. –E-mail and web servers. –WANs (branch campuses, Internet). Users can dial-in to access central services or any other system they are authorized to access. Central services Campus Network WANs Internet Dial-in Concentrators

24 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-24 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) Dial-in access is via a 272 modem pool attached to an ethernet via terminal servers. Modem group has 2 hunting groups. –A 15 minute quick-in-quick-out hunting group (32 lines). –A hunting group of 240 lines. –If you dial z and get in, you can stay connected 4 hours max modem pool. –If you dial y and get in, you can stay connected 2 - 4 hours. Central Services x y z Enet Terminal Servers Modem Pool Central Services

25 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-25 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) A special router in the computer center is dedicated to serving the remote campuses and other off campus buildings (WANs). The router is connected to local ethernet. A different router provides 10Mbps Internet connectivity plus T1(1.5Mbps) backup connectivity provided by a different vendor. If one goes down other takes over. Computer services Router CLI 1.5Mbps ANS 10Mbps In State WANs Enets

26 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-26 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) All electronics are SNMP manageable. Al routers support all mandatory protocols. Cabling is highly scalable in terms of bandwidth. Patching at all wiring centers allows special connections, changes in topology and special wiring center to wiring center connections. (eg. The media services building uses the campus fiber network to connect to other buildings for beaming video.)

27 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-27 Case Study - UNM - Electronics (Cont.) All electronics were bid competitively. –Hubs are from Synoptics (now Bay networks). –Routers are from Wellfleet (now Bay networks). –Ethernet switches are from Kalpana (now CISCO). –PC Enet cards are from 3Com. Substantial multiyear discounts were obtained as a result of the RFP process, saving UNM hundreds of thousands of dollars.

28 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-28 Case Study - UNM - Extensions Recently the research park and athletics complex were connected to the campus network to provide voice, video and data connectivity. ATM multiplexer located at nearest zone hub –Data patched to zone ethernet switch. –Voice patched to telecommunications building. –Video patched to media services building. South Campus network Video Voice Data Video Telecom to nearest zone hub Campus Network ATM MUX ATM MUX Single Mode Fiber

29 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-29 Case Study - UNM - Extensions (Cont.) South campus is located about 2 miles from main campus in a metropolitan area. The local electric utility allowed UNM to use electric poles to string the fiber between the main and south campuses at a cost of a few dollars per pole per month (precedent setting for the utility). This greatly reduced the total costs and securing the right of ways.

30 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-30 Case Study - UNM - Extensions (Cont.) A subcontractor strung the fibers. Total cost of project, including all electronics was $250K in one time costs, plus several hundred dollars per month for pole rental.

31 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-31 Case Study - UNM - UNM MAN and WAN UNM includes a number of : –Remote branch campuses. –Research centers in rented buildings within 1 - 2 miles of campus. –Research centers remote to the campus. These are connected to the campus LAN and its services via a router and leased 56Kbps lines, T1 lines and T1 frame relay services. Leased Lines 56Kbps, T1, T1 frame relay Router Campus LAN and services

32 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-32 UNM MAN, WAN figures

33 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-33 Case Study - UNM - CHECSNet The Council of Higher Education Computing Services (CHECS) is a non-profit corporation formed by computer center directors of universities and community colleges in New Mexico. The objective of CHECS is to exchange information on common needs and solutions, and to negotiate hardware, software and service discount agreements that benefit all institutions.

34 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-34 Case Study - UNM - CHECSNet (Cont.) A subsidiary, CHECSNet, was formed to facilitate implementation of statewide Internet connectivity. An innovative aspect of CHECSNet is that the costs are based on bandwidth only and are independent of the location of the schools. This provides all schools with an equal opportunity to connect by not penalizing schools that are away from the network hubs.

35 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-35 Case Study - UNM - CHECSNet (Cont.) The cost of lines, equipment and operation are pooled and divided equally among all institutions according to the bandwidth they wish to have ( cost of T1 line is 3 times the cost of a 56kbps line). All schools are connected either to UNM (northern gateway) or New Mexico State University (southern gateway) with a line between the two for redundancy and backup.

36 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-36 Case Study - UNM - CHECSNet (Cont.) Figure - state network

37 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-37 Case Study - UNM - Network Management The network is monitored on a 24x7 basis since it is critical to the mission of the university. All UNM business processes depend on a reliable network. All equipment is SNMP or RMON complient to facilitate statistics gathering and diagnosis.

38 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-38 Case Study - UNM - Network Management A combination of NETVIEW, OPTIVITY and SITEMANAGER are used for configuration management. They provide number of network nodes, mac or IP address mapping, hub, switch and router configurations. OPTIVITY and TRANSCEND, running under NETVIEW are used to monitor Bay Networks and 3Com equipment and provide network performance statistics.

39 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-39 Case Study - UNM - Network Management Sniffers were used to identify certain hard to diagnose problems. Currently moving to RMON2 probes for remote statistics gathering and diagnosis. When NETVIEW detects or a user reports a problem, an alpha - numeric page is sent describing the problem to the on-call network professional who takes action to fix the problems with minimum downtime. CA-UNICENTER is currently used for problem tracking.

40 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-40 Case Study - UNM - Network Management A Network Operations Center (NOC) at the computing center continuously monitors the network, handles users calls and pages the on-call professional when needed. Change management for documenting network changes, installs, deletions etc is done manually while an RFP for an integrated package for change management of all central services is being developed.

41 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-41 Case Study - UNM - Network Management Lots of different packages used (NETVIEW, OPTIVITY, TRANSCEND etc) because no single package is adequate as yet. Other tools are therefore continuously evaluated (eg. CONCORD, a web based usage statistics system).

42 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-42 Case Study - UNM - ATM Network UNM has experimented with ATM networks to evaluate their functionality to provide a higher bandwidth backbone with Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities. An experimental ATM switch connects 4 nodes of a small supercomputer and departments with high bandwidth needs will soon be connected to this switch.

43 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-43 Case Study - UNM - ATM Network (Cont.) They include the departments of Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering and the High Performance Computing Education and Research Center. ATM Switch Campus LAN and Services Computer ScienceEECE HPCERC

44 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-44 Case Study - UNM - vBNS & Internet2 Current Internet is too congested for many advanced applications (eg. teleimmersion, telemedicine, audio and video conferencing etc). Leading US research universities formed a consortium to implement Internet2 that will be confined to educational institutions. UNM is a charter member of the Internet2 consortium.

45 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-45 Case Study - UNM - vBNS & Internet2 (Cont.) The National science Foundation (NSF) initiated in 1996 a High Performance Connectivity Program to fund connectivity to the Very High Bandwidth Network Service (vBNS). UNM has been funded for vBNS connectivity and will be connected via a DS3 line to nearest vBNS connection point at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). In the future, New Mexico State University will also have vBNS connectivityvia UNM.

46 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-46 Case Study - UNM - vBNS & Internet2 (Cont.) UNM will try to leverage this by implementing a local Gigapop that will be a major exchange point between : –The vBNS and Internet2. –The commodity Internet. –The Energy Science Network (ESNet) –The Defence Research and engineering Network (DREN). since Albuquerque is a place where all these networks meet or will meet. vBNS, I2 ESNet DREN Internet NMSU UNM

47 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-47 Case Study - UNM - Upgrade Plans To provide bandwidth scalability to both the dektop and the backbone, UNM is planning to upgrade the electronics, given that the existing infrastructure (fiber and cat - 5 wiring) can easily support that. The long term upgrade plan is to : –Replace shared Enet hub electronics with 10/100Mbps Enet switches, providing switched 10/100Mbps to desktops.

48 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-48 Case Study - UNM - Upgrade Plans (Cont.) –Upgrade the FDDI backbone to a fully redundant, multiconnected OC-3 (then OC-12 and OC-48) ATM backbone with tail-end backbone routers. –Provide ATM to the desktop in cases where this is needed.

49 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-49 Case Study - UNM - Upgrade Plans (Cont.) Phasing. When additional plates need to be activated, only 10/100Mbps Enet switches will be acquired. They will be installed in locations where bandwidth is needed the most. Shared hubs will stay where bandwidth is needed the least untill all shared hubs are replaced within 3-4 years.

50 © Copyright 1997, The University of New Mexico 9-50 Case Study - UNM - Upgrade Plans (Cont.) Figure - new network


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