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Designing Adaptive Organizations Chapter 10. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Organizing Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing Adaptive Organizations Chapter 10. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Organizing Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing Adaptive Organizations Chapter 10

2 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Organizing Organization is the deployment of resources to achieve strategic goals. It is reflected in – Division of labor into specific departments & jobs – Formal lines of authority – Mechanisms for coordinating diverse organizational tasks Manager’s Challenge: Nissan

3 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Designing Adaptive Organizations Organizing Principles and Concepts Organizing the Vertical Structure Using Mechanisms for Horizontal Coordination Tailoring Various Elements of Structural Design to Organizational Situations Topics Chapter 10

4 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 4 Organization Structure Defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated ● Set of formal tasks assigned ● Formal reporting relationships The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across department

5 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 5 The Organization Chart “The Home Depot is the world's largest home improvement retailer currently operating 1,363 stores. Visual representation Set of formal tasks Formal reporting relationships Framework for vertical control

6 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 6 Work Specialization Tasks are subdivided into individual jobs Employees perform only the tasks relevant to their specialized function Jobs tend to be small, but they can be performed efficiently Division of labor concept

7 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 7 Chain of Command Unbroken line of authority that links all persons in an organization Shows who reports to whom Associated with two underlying principles  Unity of Command  Scalar Principle Unbroken line of authority that links all persons in an organization Shows who reports to whom Associated with two underlying principles  Unity of Command  Scalar Principle

8 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 8 Authority Formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions and issue orders Allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes Authority is distinguished by three characteristics  Authority is vested in organizational positions, not people  Authority is accepted by subordinates  Authority flows down the vertical hierarchy Formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions and issue orders Allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes Authority is distinguished by three characteristics  Authority is vested in organizational positions, not people  Authority is accepted by subordinates  Authority flows down the vertical hierarchy

9 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 9 Responsibility The duty to perform the task or activity an employee has been assigned Managers are assigned authority commensurate with responsibility Flip side of the authority coin

10 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 10 Accountability ● Mechanism through which authority and responsibility are brought into alignment ● People are subject to reporting and justifying task outcomes to those above them in the chain of command ● Can be built into the organization structure

11 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 11 Delegation ●Process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility ●Organizations encourage managers to delegate authority to lowest possible level Ethical Dilemma: A Matter of Delegation

12 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 12 Techniques for Delegation Give thorough instructions Maintain feedback Evaluate and reward performance Delegate the whole task Select the right person Delegation Ensure that authority equals responsibility

13 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 13 Line and Staff Authority Line Authority = individuals in management positions have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates Staff Authority = granted to staff specialists in their area of expertise

14 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 14 Span of Management/ Span of Control Number of employees who report to a supervisor – Traditional view = seven subordinates per manager – Lean organizations today = 30+ subordinates Supervisor Involvement – must be closely involved with subordinates, the span should be small – need little involvement with subordinates, it can be large

15 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 15 Factors Associated With Less Supervisor Involvement Work is stable and routine Subordinates perform similar work tasks Subordinates are concentrated in a single location Subordinates are highly trained Rules and procedure defining task activities are available Support systems and personnel are available for the manager Little time is required in nonsupervisory activities Managers’ preferences and styles favor a large span Work is stable and routine Subordinates perform similar work tasks Subordinates are concentrated in a single location Subordinates are highly trained Rules and procedure defining task activities are available Support systems and personnel are available for the manager Little time is required in nonsupervisory activities Managers’ preferences and styles favor a large span

16 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 16 Tall versus Flat Structure Span of Control used in an organization determines whether the structure is tall or flat Tall structure has a narrow span and more hierarchical levels Flat structure has a wide span, is horizontally dispersed and fewer hierarchical levels The trend has been toward wider spans of control

17 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 17 Centralization versus Decentralization Greater change and uncertainty in the environment are usually associated with decentralization The amount of centralization or decentralization should fit the firm’s strategy In times of crisis or risk of company failure, authority may be centralized at the top

18 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 18 Departmentalization The basis on which individuals are grouped into departments  Vertical functional approach. People are grouped together in departments by common skills.  Divisional approach. Grouped together based on a common product, program, or geographical region.  Horizontal matrix approach. Functional and divisional chains of command. Some employees report to two bosses  Team-based approach. Created to accomplish specific tasks

19 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 19 Departmentalization The basis on which individuals are grouped into departments  Network approach. Small, central hub electronically connected to their other organizations that perform vital functions. Departments are independent, and can be located anywhere.  Virtual approach. Brings people together temporarily to exploit specific opportunities then disbands

20 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 20 Five Approaches to Structural Design

21 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 21 Five Approaches to Structural Design Slide 2

22 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 22 Vertical Functional Approach Grouping of positions into departments based on similar skills, expertise, and resource use ● Information flows up and down ● Chain of command converges at the top ● Managers and employees are compatible because of similar training and expertise ● Rules and procedures governing duties and responsibilities

23 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 23 Divisional Structure Advantages Efficient use of resources Skill specialization development Top management control Excellent coordination Quality technical problem solving

24 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 24 Divisional Structure Disadvantages Poor communications Slow response to external changes Decisions concentrated at top Pin pointing responsibility is difficult Limited view of organizational goals by employees

25 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 25 Horizontal Matrix Advantages More efficient use of resources than single hierarchy Adaptable to changing environment Development of both general and specialists management skills Expertise available to all divisions Enlarged tasks for employees

26 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 26 Dual Authority Structure in a Matrix Organization

27 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 27 Horizontal Matrix Disadvantages Dual chain of command High conflict between two sides of matrix Many meetings to coordinate activities Need for human relations training Power domination by one side of matrix

28 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 28 Team Advantages Same advantages as functional structure Reduced barriers among departments Quicker response time Better morale Reduced administrative overhead

29 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 29 Team Disadvantages Dual loyalties and conflict Time and resources spent on meetings Unplanned decentralization

30 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 30 Network Approach Advantages Global competitiveness Work force flexibility Reduced administrative overhead

31 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 31 Network Approach Disadvantages No hands-on control Loss of part of the organization severely impacts remainder of organization Employee loyalty weakened

32 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 32 Task Forces, Teams, Project Management Task Force = temporary team/committee designed to solve a short-term problem involving several departments Project Manager = responsible for coordinating activities of several departments on a full-time basis for the completion of a specific project

33 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 33 Reengineering Radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed Process = organized group of related tasks and activities that work together to transform inputs into outputs and create value

34 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 34 Factors Shaping Structure Structure Follows Strategy Reflects the Environment Fits the Technology Service Technology Digital Technology Experiential Exercixe: Organic versus Mechanistic Organization Structure


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