EE 399 Lecture 2 (b): Punctuations. Contents Punctuations Punctuation marks are conveyors of meaning. Incorrect dealing with them can actually mislead.
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Contents Punctuations Punctuation marks are conveyors of meaning. Incorrect dealing with them can actually mislead the reader, destroy the grammar, or change the meaning of the sentence. ApostropheDashParentheses BracketsEllipsesPeriods Colon Hyphens (soft): Semicolon Comma Hyphens (hard):
Apostrophe Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Ownership Used to form the possessive of singular nouns. Ohm ’ s law McDonald ’ s Names ending with “ s ” For names ending with “ s ” sound or plural nouns ending in “ s ”, the style in technical writing is to add only apostrophe. Gauss ’ law / two months ’ delay ContractionUsed for contraction. Can ’ t Letters & Symbols Used for the plurals of letters and symbols. Replace all t ’ s with b ’ s Abbreviations and Numbers NO apostrophe is needed for all- capitalized abbreviations or for numbers ISPs, the 1990s
Brackets Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Within Quotations To add something within quotations “ He came last night [Monday] ” Within Parenthesis For parentheses within parentheses ([ ]) ConcentrationFor concentrations ([NaC1]) References For citations of references According to Jones 
Colon Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES ListTo introduce a list. We used three levels: good, average, and poor Linking Sentences To link two sentences when the second one explains the first We have a very important question: who will pay the money? RatiosTo represent a ratio. 1:2 Quotations To introduce a quotation I have a favorite saying: “ If it is not broken do not fix it ”
Comma: 1/2 Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Introductory Expressions To set off introductory expressions Because he is late, he missed the meeting Parenthetical Information To present parenthetical information. He, accompanied by his son, traveled to Japan Independent Clauses To separate long independent clauses joined by: and, but, for, or, nor, so, or yet. Separating Items To separate items in a series. Black, white, and red are basic colors
Comma: 2/2 Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Separate Adjectives To separate adjectives that could be linked by “ and ”. Early, successful treatment is needed. Separate Address Elements To separate elements in addresses and dates. He lives in Olya, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Titles To present titles and degrees that appears after a name. Mohammed, Vice- President, chaired the meeting Leave one space after the comma
Dash Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Technical Definitions For technical definitions inserted within general text. Integrated circuits – large circuits embedded in a package – are used in many equipments. Parenthetical Information To present parenthetical information with more emphasis than commas. He – accompanied by his son – traveled to Japan Parenthetical Remarks To present parenthetical remarks with commas within them We stopped at three cities – first at Riyadh, Jeddah, then in Cairo – before reaching London.
Ellipses Punctuations USEEXPLANATION Deleted Material in Text Use three points ( … ) in text to represent deleted material within a sentence. Deleted Material at the End Use four points (....) for omission at the end of a sentence. Spaces Use space before and after if the ellipses are within a sentence.
Hyphens (soft) Punctuations USEEXPLANATION Dividing a Word Insert hyphens to divide a word into two parts between the end of one line of text and the start of the next line. Do not divide acronyms, abbreviations, or one- syllable words (words with single tone pronunciation). Do not leave a single letter at the end or beginning of a line.
Hyphens (hard): 1/2 Punctuations Used to separate the bases of compound words, or separate prefixes or suffixes from a base. USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Numbers: 21 - 99 For numbers from 21 through 99 when written as words, except for multiples of 10. Sixty-seven pages Fractions For fractions. Two-thirds of a mile Single Capital Letter For compounds beginning with a single capital letters. O-rings.
Hyphens (hard): 2/2 Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Compound Adjectives For adjective compounds.A blue-gray mix Prefix To separate the prefix from the base begins with a capital letter or figure. un-American, pre-1998 Avoid Doubling To avoid doubling an I or tripling a consonant. anti-isolation, cell-like After ex-, half-, quasi-, and self-.
Parentheses: 1/2 Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Citations For figures, equations, and table citations. as shown in Table (3) Abbreviations & Acronyms To introduce abbreviations and acronyms Clarifications To provide subsidiary information that clarifies procedures, or results Attention To direct the reader attention the equations (above) are so important
Parentheses: 2/2 Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES List Numbering To enclose numbers of items in lists that are run into text. Objectives of trip: (1) attend a short course, and (2) view equipment. No Periods Do not use periods for parenthetical sentences within sentences Coma When needed, put the comma after the closing parenthesis
Periods Punctuations USEEXPLANATION End To put an end after completing a sentence. Quotation Marks Place periods before closing quotation marks. Titles Do not close titles of papers or reports with periods Leave one space after the period
Semicolon Punctuations USEEXPLANATIONEXAMPLES Linking Clauses To link independent clauses. The speed is about 120 km/hr; traffic is difficult; police is not present Listing To separate items in a list when the items themselves are punctuated Meeting was attended by: Mohammed, Vice President; Tariq, accountant, Ministry of trade; Ahmed, secretary
Training Punctuations Give new examples on the different types of use of the various punctuations Assignment 1: Punctuation & Grammar