2 SelectionProcess of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and an organizationGoal of selection process is to properly match people with jobs and organization.Individuals overqualified, underqualified, or do not fit either job or organization’s culture, will probably leave the firm.
3 Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process Other HR functionsLegal considerationsDecision making speedOrganizational hierarchyApplicant poolType of organizationProbationary period
4 Administration of Selection Tests AdvantagesPotential Problems using Selection TestsCharacteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests
5 Advantages of Selection Tests Reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidatesIdentify attitudes and job-related skillsDeficiencies in other techniques
6 Potential Problems Using Selection Tests Legal liabilitiesTest anxiety
7 Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests Standardization - Uniformity of the procedures and conditions of administering testObjectivity - Everyone scoring a test obtains the same resultsNorms - Frame of reference for comparing an applicant's performance with that of others
8 Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests (Continued) Reliability - Provides consistent resultsCorrelation coefficient = average squared error>.8 is goodTypesTest-retestSplit-halfinterrater
9 Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests (Continued) Validity - Measures what it is supposed to measureRequirement for Job Relatedness – test must work without having adverse impact on minorities, females, and individuals with backgrounds or characteristics protected under law
10 Types of Validation Studies Criterion-related validity - comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performanceConcurrent validity - Test scores and the criterion data are obtained at essentially the same timePredictive validity - Administering a test and later obtaining the criterion information
11 Types of Validation Studies (Continued) Content validity - Test validation method whereby person performs certain tasks that are actually required by job or completes a paper and pencil test that measures relevant job knowledgeConstruct validity - Test validation method that determines whether a test measures certain traits or qualities that are important in performing the job
16 Job Knowledge TestsMeasure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the position for which he or she is applyingAre commercially available
17 Work-Sample (Simulation) Tests that require an applicant to perform a task or set of tasks representative of the jobSuch tests by their nature are job relatedProduces a high predictive validity, reduces adverse impact, and is more acceptable to applicants
18 Vocational InterestsIndicate the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to receive satisfaction fromPrimary use has been in counseling and vocational guidance
20 Substance Abuse Testing Proponents contend testing necessary to ensure workplace safety, security, and productivityDrug testing in the U.S. is becoming commonplace.
21 Internet TestingIncreasingly being used to test skills required by applicants.
22 Assessment Centers In-basket exercises Management games Selection technique used to identify and select employees for positions and requires them to perform activities similar to those in jobIn-basket exercisesManagement gamesLeaderless discussion groupsMock interviews
23 The Employment Interview Goal-oriented conversation in which interviewer and applicant exchange informationInterview planning – essential to effective interviewsContent of the interview
24 Content of the Interview Occupational experienceAcademic achievementInterpersonal skillsPersonal qualitiesOrganizational fit
25 Candidate’s Role and Expectations While interviewer provides information about company, it is important for applicants to do their homework.
26 Types of Interviews Unstructured (nondirective) Structured (directive or patterned)Behavioral
27 Methods of Interviewing One-on-one interview - Applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewerGroup interview - Several applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representativesBoard interview - Several of the firm’s representatives interview one candidate
28 Methods of Interviewing Stress interview - Anxiety is intentionally createdRealistic job previews - Job information is conveyed to the applicant in an unbiased manner
29 Legal Implications of Interviewing Interview is considered to be a testSubject to same validity requirements as any other step in selection process, should adverse impact be shown
30 Personal Reference Checks Provides additional insight into applicant informationVerification of accuracy
31 Background Investigations and Professional Reference Checks Seek data from references supplied including previous employers
32 Negligent HiringNegligent Hiring - Liability employer incurs when no reasonable investigation of applicant’s background is made and potentially dangerous person is assigned to position where he or she can inflict harmAt Risk Employers – Risk of harm to third parties. Example: Taxi driver
33 Negligent Hiring (Continued) OSHA’s Role – Law requires employer to provide safe place to work; this extends to providing safe employees.Double Jeopardy – Negligent retention occurs when company keeps employees whose records indicate strong potential for wrongdoingDue Diligence Required – Employer responsible for employee’s unlawful acts even if not job related
34 Elements to Verify Previous employment Education verification Personal reference checkCriminal historyDriving recordCivil LitigationWorkers’ compensation historyCredit historySocial security number verification
35 Fair Credit Reporting Act Act amended in 1997Places new obligations on employers who use certain information brought to light through background investigations
36 Other Legal AspectsOver half of the states in U.S. have passed laws offering varying degrees of protection to employers who provide good-faith references and who release truthful information about current or former employees
37 Problems in Obtaining Information from Professional References Two schools of thought:Don’t tell them anything.Honesty is the best policy.
38 Negligent ReferralMay occur when former employer fails to offer a warning about a particularly severe problem with a past employee
39 Outsourcing Investigations Firms can outsource background checks to third-party investigators that the Fair Credit Reporting Act regulates.
40 Polygraph Tests Confirm or refute application information Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 severely limited use in the private sector
41 The Selection Decision Most critical step of allPerson whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open position should be selected
42 Medical ExaminationDetermine whether applicant physically capable of performing the work
43 Notification to Candidates Results should be made known to candidates as soon as possible.Delay may result in firm losing prime candidate.Unsuccessful candidates should also be promptly notified.