Chapter10 Measurement in Marketing Research. The Measurement Process Empirical System (MKT Phenomena) Abstract System (Construct) Number System measurement.
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Presentation on theme: "Chapter10 Measurement in Marketing Research. The Measurement Process Empirical System (MKT Phenomena) Abstract System (Construct) Number System measurement."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Question-Response Formats Open-Ended Unprobed Open-ended question: presents no response options to the respondent Unprobed format: seeks no additional information Advantage: Allows respondent to use his or her own words Disadvantages: Difficult to code and interpret Respondents may not give complete answers
Basic Question-Response Formats Open-Ended Probed Open-ended question: presents no response options to the respondent Probed format: includes a response probe instructing the interviewer to ask for additional information Advantage: Elicits complete answers Disadvantage: Difficult to code and interpret
Basic Question-Response Formats Close-Ended Dichotomous Close-ended question: provides options on the questionnaire that can be answered quickly and easily Dichotomous: has only two response options, such as “yes” or “no”, “Don’t know”, Advantage: Simple to administer and code Disadvantage: May oversimplify response options
Basic Question-Response Formats Close-Ended Multiple Category Close-ended question: provides options on the questionnaire that can be answered quickly and easily Multiple response: has more than two options for the response Advantages: Allows for broad range of possible responses Simple to administer and code Disadvantages: Must distinguish “pick one” from “pick all that apply” May alert respondents to response options of which they were unaware
Basic Question-Response Formats Scaled-Response Unlabeled Scaled-response question: utilizes a scale developed by the researcher to measure the attributes of some construct under study Unlabeled: uses a scale that may be purely numerical or only the endpoints of the scale are identified Advantages: Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Simple to administer and code Disadvantage: Respondents may not relate well to the scale
Basic Question-Response Formats Scaled-Response Labeled Scaled-response question: utilizes a scale developed by the researcher to measure the attributes of some construct under study Labeled: uses a scale in which all of the scale positions are identified with some description Advantages: Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Simple to administer and code Respondents can relate to scale Disadvantage: Scale may be “forced” or overly detailed
Considerations in Choosing a Question- Response Format The nature of the property (concept) being measured Previous research studies The data collection mode The ability of the respondent The scale level desired– for the purpose of data analysis
Basic Concepts in Measurement Measurement: determining how much of a property is possessed by an object Properties: specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object Objective properties are physically verifiable Subjective properties are mentalconstructs
Levels of Measurement Nominal scales: those that use only as labels Ordinal scales: those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondents or responses Interval scales: those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal Ratio scales: ones in which a true zero exists
Workhorse Scales Used in Marketing Research The Modified Likert Scale The Life-Style Inventory-- AIO The Semantic Differential Scale Halo effect Other Scaled-Response Question Formats
The Modified Likert Scale To measure intensity of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric scale. For example: “Marketing research class is the most valuable class in your major programs.” 5– Strongly agree 4– Agree 3– Neither agree nor disagree 2– Disagree 1– Strongly disagree
Semantic Differential Scale Using ‘bipolar adjectives’, Such as: Strong – Weak, Agree – Disagree, Light – Heavy, Good – Bad, Day – Night, etc.
Composite Scale Formative composite scale– Each item measures some part of the whole. (e.g., Store image). Reflective composite scale– Multiple items are used to measure a single dimension of a concept. ( e.g., Service quality of an airline.)
Other Scale Formats Graphic Rating Scale Stapel Scale – a unique 10-point nonverbal rating scale. It measures the direction and intensity simultaneously.
Stapel Scale Format+5+4+3+2+1−1−2−3−4−5 Fast service Friendly Bank
Stapel Scale Format+5+4+3+2+1−1−2−3−4−5 Honest High saving rates Bank
Reliability and Validity Reliability: respondent responds in the same or a similar manner to an identical or nearly identical measure: Test-retest Equivalent forms Split-half (--test the consistency of responses) Validity: accuracy of responses to a measure Face validity (Judges validity by its face value.)
Validity –con’d Predictive validity (Does a measure predict another measure? ) Convergent validity ( Do two methods of collecting the same information agree?) Discriminant validity ( Do measures of different construct differ as you expect them to?—( e.g., IQ vs. EQ. )