Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour Groups and Teamwork.
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Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour Groups and Teamwork
Defining groups A collection of two or more interacting individuals who share a common goal –Task force (project groups) = temporary group put together to achieve a specific goal or solve a specific goal –Committee = permanent groups to handle recurring issues that cannot not be handled by the normal hierarchical system.
The effects of group size on performance Performance – depends on the type of task –Additive – potential created by adding performance together –Disjunctive – potential determined by the best member –Conjunctive – potential determined by weakest member
The effects of group size on performance Related to social loafing = the withholding of effort in group tasks –free rider (let others do the work) or sucker effect (don’t be taken advantage of; restore equity) Satisfaction - the larger the group the lower the satisfaction level
Team size and productivity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total Productivity Mean productivity per member
Group formation – group development Tuckman’s stage development model –Forming – finding out about group members and the task –Storming – conflict about leadership and the task –Norming – developing norms and cohesion –Performing – getting the job done –Adjourning – leaving the group
Group formation – group development Punctuated equilibrium model –Phase 1 – the group develops then maintains an interaction pattern and approach to the task –Midpoint transition – a dramatic change in interaction patterns or task approach –Phase 2 – the interaction pattern or approach to the task continues from the transition
Group norms Generally agreed upon informal rules that guide group member behaviour –Can be prescriptive or proscriptive Examples - Dress norms or performance norms
Group cohesion/cohesiveness The strength of members’ desires to remain part of their group Influenced by: –Time spent together –External threat and competition –Success –Member diversity –Size –Initiation rights
The relationship between norms, cohesion and team performance Moderately high task performance High task performance Moderately low task performance Low task performance Low Cohesion High Cohesion Team norms compatible with organizational objectives Team norms in conflict with organizational objectives
Self-Managed Work Teams Perform challenging tasks that require high interdependence under reduced supervision Regulate much of their own behavior –Operating decisions, hiring, performance appraisal
Composition of Self-Managed Teams Membership should: – Be stable –Be fairly small –Have high task and social expertise
Supporting Self-Managed Teams Members require a high level of training –Technical skills –Social skills –Language skills –Business skills Rewards should be tied to team accomplishment –Skill-based pay –Profit sharing –Gain sharing Management acts as a support and coach