“People Power Unleashed: South Africa and Philippines” Kurt Schock.
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“People Power Unleashed: South Africa and Philippines” Kurt Schock
South Africa Transition to Democracy (56) Soweto 1976: Murder of Students led to nationwide rebellion Though the rebellion did not topple the government, it did start a process of change and reform that culminated in the 1944 of an ANC (African National Congress) led government in April 1994. Role of Violence in the Change (57) Though the ANC used violent tactics, violence alone was unable to topple the apartheid regime.
South Africa South African Regime: History 1910: Union of South Africa formed: excludes blacks. 1912: ANC established (initially challenged the government through institutional means). 1948: National Party established apartheid system. 1949: ANC launched mass resistance. 1952: Defiance Campaign: civil disobedience against apartheid. 1952: Mass arrests crippled the movement.
South Africa Anti-Apartheid Movement: Fragmented Movement (58) After the state crushed the Defiance movement, the passage of more restrictive laws (Suppression of Communism Act) and the Sharpeville attack (69 killed) anti-apartheid movement split over tactics: Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (1959) Supported use of mass demonstrations to protest state policies. ANC and Umkhonto we Sizwe (communist organization): Advocated armed resistance against the state. Leaders, including Mandela arrested in 1962, 1963.
South Africa Resistance After Soweto: (58) After the police attacked students in June 1976 for protesting a new law mandating that all educational instruction in the country be in Afrikaans, the movement became more sophisticated. Three Organizations Took the Lead: 1) United Democratic Front (UDF) 2) Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 3) ANC Changing Political Opportunity Structure: Each responded to a changing political opportunity structure.
South Africa Resistance After Soweto: (58) Changing Political Opportunity Structure: Each responded to a changing political opportunity structure. Role of non-violence: To what extent did non-violence resistance aid the success of these groups? extent where these organizations successfully
Global Justice Resistance After Soweto: (58) United Democratic Front (UDF) 1) Used non-violent strategy (except in self-defense) 2) Highly decentralized, grassroots structure 3) Tactics: demonstrations, marches, rallies 4) Non-cooperation: election and rent boycotts, 5) Sought to reign and organize militant, violent youth Result: shifted power from the state, rent boycotts forced state agencies to close, began a process of creating alternative institutions.
South Africa Resistance After Soweto: (58) Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) (1979) 1) Rejected trade union economics 2) Endorsed “social movement unionism” a. Linked workplace struggle to broader anti-apartheid movement. b. Was decentralized and democratic c. Supported radical reforms
South Africa Resistance After Soweto: (58) ANC (66-67) 1) Supported armed resistance to the state 2) Never posed a military to challenge to the state 3) Was never able to create an effective para-military structure in S. Africa. 4) It did have international support 5) In the end, it offered militant, symbolic resistance to the South African government.
South Africa Transition to Democracy: Divisions Among Elites (67-68) Sustained, and effective resistance to the apartheid led to splits among S. African political elites about the desirability of continuing the policies. Hard-Liners (“Securocrats”) against Reformers Reformers, along with the business community believed that the country needed to end apartheid in order to thrive economically. They gained power in the 1989 elections and in 1990 began the process of dismantling the apartheid state.