Research Defined “Research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins with identifying the problem or issue of the study. It then consists of.
Published byModified over 5 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Research Defined “Research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins with identifying the problem or issue of the study. It then consists of."— Presentation transcript:
1 Research Defined“Research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins with identifying the problem or issue of the study. It then consists of reviewing the literature, specifying a purpose for the study, and forming an interpretation of the information. This process culminates in a report disseminated to the audience that is evaluated and used in the educational community.” (p )
2 Lines of Research What lines of Research help Research You? Lines What doesthe Research Say?What do youWant to do?
3 The Research Spiral Identify the Research Problem Review the LiteratureEvaluate DataandWrite ReportAnalyze andInterpretDataSpecify aResearchPurposeCollect Data
4 Definitions of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative research is an inquiry approach useful for describing trends and explaining the relationship among variables found in the literature. To conduct this inquiry, the investigator specifies narrow questions, locates or develops instruments using statistics. From the results of these analyzes, the researcher interprets the data using prior predictions and research studies. The final report, presented in standard format, display researcher objectivity and lack of bias.Qualitative ResearchQuantitative research is an inquiry approach useful for exploring and understanding a central phenomenon. To learn about this phenomenon, the inquirer asks participants broad, general questions, collects the detailed views of participants in the form of words or images, and analyzes the information for description and themes. From this data, the researcher interprets the meaning of the information drawing on personal reflections and past research. The structure of the final report is flexible, and it displays the researcher’s biases and thoughts.
5 Reviewing the Literature Analyze and Interpret Data Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research in the Process of ResearchQuantitative CharacteristicsSteps in the Research ProcessQualitative CharacteristicsDescription of trends andExplanation OrientedExploratory/ Understandinga Central PhenomenonIdentifying a ProblemMajor RoleJustify ProblemMinor RoleJustify ProblemReviewing the LiteratureSpecific and NarrowMeasurable/ObservableGeneral and BroadParticipants’ ExperienceSpecifying a PurposePre-determined InstrumentsNumeric DataLarge numbersEmerging ProtocolsText or image dataSmall NumberCollecting DataStatisticalDescription of TrendsComparisons/PredictionsText AnalysisDescription/ThemesLarger meanings of findingsAnalyze and Interpret DataStandard and FixedObjective and UnbiasedReport and EvaluateFlexible and EmergingReflexive and Biased
6 Reviewing the Literature Analyze and Interpret Data Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research in the Process of ResearchSteps in the Research ProcessTwo ApproachesResearch DesignsQuantitativeQualitativeIdentifying a ProblemQuantitativeQualitativeReviewing the LiteratureExperimentalCorrelationalSurveyQuantitativeQualitativeSpecifying a PurposeQuantitativeQualitativeCollecting DataMixedActionQuantitativeQualitativeAnalyze and Interpret DataEthnographyGrounded TheoryNarrativeQuantitativeQualitativeReport and Evaluate
7 Differences Among Topic, Problem, Purpose and Questions GeneralTopicDistance LearningResearchProblemLack of students in distance classesTo study why students do not attend distance education classes at a community college.PurposeStatementDoes the use of web site technology in the classroom deter students from enrolling in a distance education class?ResearchQuestionSpecific
8 Distinguishing among various forms of direction in research PurposeStatementResearchQuestionsHypothesisResearchObjectivesOverallDirectionIntentRaise questionsto be answeredMake predictionsabout expectationsState GoalsFormOne or moresentencesOne or MoreObjectivesOne or morequestionsOne or morequestionsUseQuantitativeandQualitativeResearchQuantitativeandQualitativeResearchQuantitativeResearchTypicallyQuantitativeResearchEnd of the introduction, after the literaturereview, or in a separate section of the studyEnd ofIntroductionPlacement
9 Flow of Ideas in a Problem Statement WhatRemedyingthe Deficiencieswill do forSelectAudiencesDeficienciesin theEvidenceEducationalIssueEvidence fortheIssueTopicSubjectAreaA ConcernA ProblemSomethingthat needs asolutionEvidence fromthe literaturepracticalexperiencesIn this body ofevidence, what ismissing?What do weneed to knowmore about?How will addressingwhat we need toknow help: researcherseducatorspolicy-makersindividuals likethose in the study
11 Key Concepts Functions of Literature Reviews Designing and Constructing a Literature Review
12 The Literature ReviewThe review of the literature involves the systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem
13 The Literature ReviewThe review of the literature involves the systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem
14 Literature Review in a Quantitative Study Documents the importance of the research problem at the beginning of the studySupports the theory or explanation used in the studyForeshadows the research questionsProvides an explanation for the results in other studies and in the theoretical prediction at the end of the study.
15 The Literature Review Functions of a literature review Determine what has been done alreadyProvide insight necessary to develop a logical framework into which the topic fitsProvides the rationale for the hypotheses being investigated and the justification of the significance of the studyIdentifies potentially useful methodological strategiesFacilitates the interpretation of the results
16 Literature Review in a Qualitative Study Documents the importance of the research problem at the beginning of the studyDoes not foreshadow the research questions (which are broad in scope to encourage participants to provide their own views)Is used to compare and contrast with other studies at the end of the study
17 The Literature Review Recommendations for conducting a review Bigger does not mean betterHeavily researched topics provide enough references to focus only on major studiesLesser researched topics require reviewing any study related in some meaningful way
18 Designing and Conducting a literature review Identify key termsLocate literatureRead and evaluate the relevance of the literature to your topicAfter selection, organize the literature into a coherent picture of studies and documents on your topicWrite a review by developing summaries of the literature
19 Identifying key termsWrite a preliminary “working title” for the project and select two or three key words that capture the essence of the projectPose a short general research question that you would like to answer in the studyLook in a thesaurus of terms to find words that match your topicScan the contents in your library stacks and the table of contents of educational journals
20 The Literature Review Four stages of conducting a review Identifying key words to guide the searchIdentifying sourcesAbstracting your referencesAnalyzing, organizing and reporting the literature
21 The Literature Review Identifying key words Indexing systems of indices in which you will searchImportance of experimenting with several key words and combinations of themERIC Thesaurus
22 The Literature Review Identifying sources Characteristics of sources Primary and secondaryEmpirical and opinionImportance of using handbooks, encyclopedias, and reviews early in the review process
23 The Literature Review Identifying sources Broadening and narrowing keyword searchesThree important Boolean operatorsAND narrows a searchOR broadens a searchNOT narrows a searchNarrowing and focusing by date of publication, specific authors, titles, etc.
24 The Literature Review Identifying sources Searching for books Electronic databases of university librariesKeyword searchesSearching for journalsERICEducation IndexPsychological AbstractsDissertation AbstractsReaders’ Guide to Periodical LiteratureAnnual Reviews of Psychology
25 The Literature Review Identifying sources Searching the web Search enginesGoogle, Excite, HotBot, Northern LightSubject directoriesYahoo!, Web Crawler, LycosMeta search enginesDogpile, Momma, Vroosh
26 The Literature Review Identifying sources Educational sites ERIC, Ingenta, New Jour, Education Week, National Center for Education Statistics, Bill Hunt's Homepage, US Dept. of Education, WWW Library Resources, Psych WebEvaluating web sitesQuality, honesty, bias, and authenticityInternet Detective, Thinking Critically about WWW Resources, Critically Analyzing Information Sources
27 The Literature Review Abstracting the references Locating, reviewing, summarizing, and classifying referencesSeven stepsRead the article abstractSkim the entire articleRecord complete bibliographic informationClassify and code the articleSummarize the articleIdentify thoughts about the article you believe importantIndicate direct quotes properly
28 The Literature Review Recommended strategies when abstracting Begin with the most recent references and move toward the most datedRecord all bibliographic informationAuthor, date of publication, title, journal name or book title or website name, volume and issue, pages, library call number or URLIdentify direct quotes and record page numbersIdentify main ideas
29 Literature Review Analyzing, organizing and reporting Technical nature of reportingDocumentationFormal languageAdherence to prescribed styles (e.g., APA)Outline the reviewGroup by topicsAnalyze for similarities and differences within subheadingsDiscuss the lest relevant studies first followed by the most relevant studiesSummarize the review and discuss the implications related to the research problem
30 Literature ReviewDifferences between quantitative and qualitative reviewsQuantitative reviews are typically conducted in the initial stages of the studyQualitative reviews are ongoing throughout the entire study reflecting the need to understand data as it is collected, interpreted, and synthesized
32 Locate the literature: Examples of Sources Stacks in the LibraryData Bases (e.g. ERIC, First Search)EncyclopediasSummariesDictionaries and glossaries of termsHandbooksStatistical indexesReviews and Syntheses
33 Evaluating the relevance of the literature: Questions to ask Topic relevance: Is the literature on the same topic as your proposed study?Individual and site relevance: Does the literature examine the same individuals and sites you want to study?
34 Evaluating the relevance of the literature: Questions to ask Problem relevance: Does the literature examine the same research problem as you propose in your study?Accessibility relevance: Is the literature available in your library or can it be downloaded from a web site?
35 Organizing the literature Copy and file materialsConstruct a Literature Map
36 Procedure for constructing a Literature Map Identify key terms for the topic and put them at the top of the mapSort studies into topical areas or “families of studies.”Provide a label for each box which will become a heading for the reviewDevelop the map on as many levels as possible
37 Procedure for constructing a Literature Map Draw a box toward the bottom of the figure that says “my proposed study”Draw lines connecting the proposed study with other branches of the literature
38 Literature Map Study Abroad U.S. Programs Programs The need for Teaching Programsto be Culturally ResponsiveBennett, 1995; Eastman,Smith, 1991; Grant 1994; Noel,1995Study AbroadProgramsU.S.ProgramsPersonal insightsof Preservice TeachersFriesen, KangMcDongall, 1995;Mahan, Stachowski, 1991PossibleImprovementsMartin, Rohrlich ,1991; Stachowski,1991Personal insightsof Preservice TeachersCockrell, PlacierCockrell, Middleton1999, Goodwin, 1997Kea, Bacon, 1999Attitude TowardStudy AbroadKing, Young ,1994Need for further study:Non-English Speaking CulturesQuestion: Do short-term studyabroad programs in non-Englishspeaking cultures help createcultural responsiveness inpreservice teachers?ConventionalProgramsColville-HallMacdonald, Smollen, 1995;Rodriguez, Sjostrom, 1995; Vavrus, 1994Cross-CulturalProgramsCooper, BeareThorman, 1990;Larke, Wiseman,Bradley, 1990Predominately EnglishSpeaking CountriesMahan, Stachowski, 1990;Quinn, Barr, McKay,Jarchow, Powell, 1995;Vall, Tennison, 1992
39 Circular Literature Map Need for Further StudyNon-English Speaking CulturesQuestion: “Do short term study abroad programsin non-English speaking cultures help createcultural responsiveness in preservice teachers?Study AbroadProgramU.S. ProgramsConventional ProgramsPreservice Teachers(Friesen, Kang,McDougall, 1995)Attitudes TowardStudy Abroad(King, Young 1994)Personal insights ofPreservice Teachers(Friesen, Kang,McDougall, 1995)Personal Insights ofTeachers (Cockrell,Placer, Cockrell,Milleton, 1999Predominately EnglishSpeaking Cultures(Maha, Stachowski,1990)Cross-Cultural Program(Cooper, Beare,Thorman, 1990)
40 Writing a review of the literature Identify and summarize each study in an “abstract” that highlights important elementsWrite out complete citations for the summaries with headings that use appropriate style manual formatsWrite the review using writing strategies related to the type and extent of the review
41 Quantitative and Qualitative Abstracts The research problemThe hypothesis or research questionsThe data collection procedureResults of the studyQualitativeThe research problemThe central phenomenonThe data collection procedureFindings