Presentation on theme: "Events leading to creation of Pakistan ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 Events leading to creation of Pakistan (1857-1947)
2 1857 War of Independence Anti-British uprising Final collapse of Mughal EmpireCauses of revoltExploitation of BritainLaws and regulations against traditions of peopleArabic and Persian language were abolished from schools and officesLaws allow remarriage of hindu widowEnglish officers’ racial superiority over indian
3 Why revolt failed People were temporarily united No organization and central leadershipFought war without planning
4 Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan Born in Delhi on 17th October 1817 Took service with East India CompanyHe wanted Muslims to accept the dominancy of Britain and Get education and update themselvesMuslims must be active in political activities
5 1877 Pan-Islamization War between Russia and Ottoman Empire Syed Jamludin Afghani founder of movementMuslim should free themselves from foreign domination and establish commonwealth of Muslims.
6 1885 Formation of Indian National Congress Liberal Indian organization founded by A.W. HumeConsolidate union between British government and Indian peopleMore Indian representation in provincial and central legislations
7 1905 Partition of Bengal By Lord Curzon Primary purpose was administratvieDivided into two parts of east and west BengalMuslim majority in east Bengal and Hindus in WestBritish government gave some provision to MuslimsHindus stood against it
8 1st Oct: 1906 Simla Deputation Led by Agha Khan to Viceroy (Lord Minto ) of IndiaMuslims should have representation in electoral system
9 1906 Foundation of All-India Muslim League Founded in Dhaka 30 December 1906 ,chairmanship of Nawab Viqar-ul-MulkNawab Salim Ullah Khan presented a proposal for establish a political partyTo safeguard Muslims’ interestsMajor aim: to promote loyalty to British GovernmentParty played big role in independence of Pakistan
10 Continue…The headquarters of the All India Muslim League was established in Lucknow, and Sir Aga Khan was elected as its first president.Elected six vice-presidents, a secretary and two joint secretaries for a term of three years.The initial membership was 400, with members hailing proportionately from all provinces.Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar wrote the constitution of the League, known as the "Green Book". Branches were also setup in other provinces.Syed Ameer Ali established a branch of the League in London in 1908, supporting the same objectives.
11 Minto-Morley Reforms Called to be the Act of 1909 Right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims
12 1911 Bengal partition annulled Bengal Partition was annulledMuslims’ distance from government increasedThe partition of Bengal was rescinded in 1911 and announced at the Delhi Durbar at which King George V was crowned Emperor of IndiaViceroy of India from 1910 to 1916 Charles Hardinge
13 1916-17 Laknow Pact World war – I (British against Germany) Lord Chelmsford's invitation for suggestions from the Indian politicians for the post World War I reforms further helped in the development of the situationCongress agreed Muslims' demand for separate electoratesExtra seats for Muslims in Muslim minority provinces
14 Continue… Bombay in December 1915 October 1916 November 1916 The agreement was confirmed by the annual sessions of the Congress and the League in their annual session held at Lucknow on December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively.Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the Lucknow Pact, the title of "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity".
15 1919 Jallianwalla Bah Massacre 13th AprilBritish ordered to ban public assembliesSikhs gathered for their annual celebration in AmritsarGeneral Dyer ordered to fire on crowd
16 1919 Khilafat MovementTo maintain the Turkish Caliphate. 2. To protect the holy places of the Muslims. 3. To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.Led by Ali broters (Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali),Gandhi supported and suggested for non-corporations
17 1924 Khilaft MovementLose momentumTurkish government abolished
18 1928 Nehru report Moti lal Nehru Anti muslim document A declaration of Human rights should be insertedNWFP be given full provincial statusSindh be separated from BombayMuslim representation in central assembly be reduced
19 1929 fourteen pointAgainst Nehru reportQuaid-e-Azam gave 14 points
20 Round table conferences Simon commisionDecember 1930 to February 1931 first round table conferenceSeptember 1931 to January 1932 second round table1932 third round table conference
21 1940 Pakistan Resolution March 1940 at Muslim league session at Lahore President ship of Quaid-e-AzamMuslim Majority areas be grouped to constitute independent state
22 World War - II 1939 to 45 Between two alliance force Britain, Russia, France and America on one side and Japan, Germany and Italy
23 1942 Cripps Mission To get support form Indian Sir Stafford Crisp arrived in New DelhiMet with Indian leaders
24 1944 Gandhi Jinnah Talk In bombay Resolve difference between Congress and Muslim LeagueGandhi opposed two nations theory
25 1945 Simla Conference Held by Viceroy Congress insisted to represent muslims of india but Muslim league claimed for it.
26 1946 Cabinet MissionProposed center will deal with defense, foreign affairs and communication and three autonomous groups of provienceCongress opposed
27 1946 Action day Muslim league declared direct action day Calling for strikesAim to press Pakistan
28 1946 Interim Government Installed in office A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up called Interim GovernmentInitially congress and Muslim league reject but finally both became part for coalition
29 1947 June 3 Partition Plan Prepared by Lord Mountbatten (last viceroy) Division of Subcontinent into two independent states
30 1947 Pakistan Achieved 14th August Formally transferred the power of constituent assembly of Paksitan15th August Quaid-i-Azam became Governor General of Paksitan