2 Chapter 1 Overview of Public Speaking Presentation Package Prepared By:Erin E. BairdUniversity of OklahomaThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
3 Overview WHEN WILL YOU USE THE SKILLS OFFERED IN THIS BOOK? WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATING?HOW CAN YOU BE A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC SPEAKER?HOW CAN YOU OVERCOME A FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING?HOW CAN YOU BE AN ETHICAL PUBLIC SPEAKER?Let's begin with a question. How do you think learning to speak in public could help you? (take a few answers).These are all good thoughts. While we cannot predict moments when we may be called upon to step up to the podium, no matter what career you pursue, the influence that effective speaking will have on your life is significant. You will find yourself needing to defend a decision, promote your business, protect your family, or take a stance. This book will help you step up to those challenges.WHAT IS THE CREATIVE PROCESS FOR PUBLIC SPEAKING?
8 Be a Successful Public Speaker Be audience centeredBe knowledgeable, creative, and organizedGood public speakers know that being audience-centered allows them to help the audience connect with the speakers and their topics.<<CLICK>> You must also ensure that you are well-informed, creative and organized when putting together your speech in order to keep listeners interested in what you have to say.For example, consider Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech. His language was unique by being creative and resourceful, yet organized in a manner acceptable to his audience.
9 Be a Successful Public Speaker Use appropriate appealsLOGOSETHOSPATHOSAristotle wrote in the Rhetoric about the influence certain appeals (also called proofs) have on the credibility of a speaker and his/her speech. A speaker must use a balance of these to be deemed an effective speaker by the audience.<<CLICK>> Logos: When you organize a speech and support your speech with different types of evidence, or sources, that your audience will accept through reasoning and logic.<<CLICK>> Ethos: In order for your audience to consider you and your information reliable, they must view you as trustworthy, competent, objective, and enthusiastic for you to have high ethos.<<CLICK>> Pathos: Appealing to the audience's emotions to maintain their interest or to convince them of your intent.
10 Be a Successful Public Speaker Use appropriate presentation techniquesPracticeTo be a successful speaker, you must be diligent and consider the presentation as a whole: know as much as possible about your topic, audience, occasion, language, and methods of delivery right up to the moment the speech ends. Types of delivery include: memorized, impromptu, extemporaneous, and manuscript.<<CLICK>> Practice helps you hone your skills and identify issues, but also helps you gain confidence and reduce anxiety.
12 Overcome Fear of Public Speaking Understand what is happeningFace your fear head onLearn techniques that work<<CLICK>> Communication apprehension is the fear of engaging in communicative behavior with one or more persons, and speech anxiety are the fears you have about giving a speech. They are normal, can help you succeed at the task at hand and can be controlled. Anxiety symptoms can range from a tight throat, to clammy hands, to sweating and shaking.<<CLICK>> Recognizing exactly what you fear can help you figure out what techniques to use to manage your anxiety. Do you fear a lack of experience? Or, fear of forgetting your information?<<CLICK>> Controlling your anxiety requires techniques before the speech day, before the speech itself, and during the speech. For example, not procrastinating allows you to be properly prepared before the speech day, meditation exercises can help calm your nerves right before your speech, and eye contact with familiar faces in the room can help you stay focused as you progress through the speech.<<CLICK>> You have to put yourself in realistic speaking situations. The more you practice, and in front of people, the easier speaking becomes.Practice, practice, practice!
14 Be an Ethical Public Speaker Understand ethicsSupport and endorse freedom of expressionValue diversityBe sensitive to the power of language<<CLICK>> Ethics are a set of standards that guide you to good and honorable behavior, and helps others see you in a positive manner. Ethics are involved in every step of the public speaking process, from the topic you choose, to the evidence you use to support your argument, to the way you choose to deliver your speech.<<CLICK>> The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution (adopted in 1791) allows us the freedom of speech or press. As speakers, we are legally and morally obligated to comply with laws that protect others<<CLICK>> You must work at recognizing your audience and respecting his or her needs and motives. Avoid ethnocentrism, or the assumption that your own group or culture is better than all others.<<CLICK>> You must be aware of your language choices and the power of words. Stay away from biases.
15 Be an Ethical Public Speaker Use reliable evidence, logic, and reasonCite sourcesBlatant plagiarismNo-citation plagiarismAccept responsibility<<CLICK>> You must use reliable sources, tight organization, and careful reasoning.<<CLICK>> Use proper citations:Plagiarism is when you intentionally or unintentionally use all of a portion of the words, ideas, or illustrations created by someone else without proper creditBlatant plagiarism can occur when a speaker uses an entire speech or document of someone else's without citationNo-citation plagiarism occurs when the speaker fails to give credit to a part of their speech that came from another source.<<CLICK>> In our modern technological age, we cannot predict the long term staying power of our words. We must stand by them in the short-term and in the long-term.
17 1 The Creative Process Overview of public speaking STARTINGOverview of public speakingKnow your audience and situationSelect your purpose and topicTo orient you to public speaking, we examine importance and use of public speaking, the communication process, and how to manage anxiety.Also, you will be introduced to how to understand your audience and tailor your speech to their needs. You'll also discover how to be appropriate to the audience and the occasion.
18 2 The Creative Process Locate supporting material RESEARCHINGLocate supporting materialSelect and test supporting materialThe Researching part of the creative process requires using a variety of sources in an effective manner, and can be located via Internet research, library research, original research, or from personal experience.
19 3 The Creative Process Outline your speech Organize speech body CREATINGOutline your speechOrganize speech bodyIntroduce and conclude your speechThe actual creating part of the process involves outlining your speech and referencing material in APA or MLA format, organizing your speech in innovative and logical ways, and creating engaging introductions and conclusions that grab your audience's attention.
20 4 The Creative Process Use language successfully Deliver your speech PRESENTINGUse language successfullyDeliver your speechUse presentation aidsThe Presenting part of the creative process involves constructing language that is appropriate, vivid, and clear, delivery that is natural, enthusiastic, and confident, and creating presentation aids that aid attention and understanding.
21 5 The Creative Process Listen Evaluate speeches LISTENING & EVALUATING Finally, the listening and evaluating state of the creative process ensures that the speaker and the audience overcome barriers to listening, in order to effectively evaluate speeches using criteria on support, organization, delivery, and ethics.
22 LISTENING & EVAULATING How Will You Use the Steps in This Book?1STARTING32RESEARCHING45LISTENING & EVAULATINGCREATINGPRESENTINGUse these five basic parts to create a successful speech. Although the process may look linear, you will move back and forth between parts to construct your speech.
25 When can you manage speech anxiety? What Do You Think?A. Before the speech dayB On the speech dayC. During the speechD. All of the above<<CLICK>> for answer: D. All of the above
26 What are some academic and "real world" implications of plagiarism? What Do You Think?EmbarrassmentFailingLosing credibilityUniversity dismissalJob dismissalLegal issues<<CLICK>> for example answersAcademic examples: Failing an assignment, failing a course, being embarrassed in front of your peers, losing credibility in the eyes of your instructor and peers, kicked out of college by your university's academic integrity council.Real World examples: Being reprimanded by your boss with docked pay, denied a promotion, losing your job, being embarrassed in front of your colleagues, copyright issues, legal issues
27 When will you use the skills offered in this book? REVIEW QUESTIONIn your public, professional, and personal life<<CLICK>> Answer: In your public, professional, and personal life. See pages 2-3
28 What are the components of the transactional model of communication? REVIEW QUESTIONSpeakerAudienceMessageFeedbackChannelNoiseSituationBackgroundCommon ground<<CLICK>>Answer: The Transactional Model gives the listener and the speaker equal status. Its components are: speaker, audience, message, feedback, channel, noise, situation, background, common ground.(see pages 4-5)
29 How can you be a successful speaker? REVIEW QUESTIONBe audience-centeredBe knowledgeable, creative, and organizedUse appropriate appealsUse appropriate presentation techniquesPractice<<CLICK>>Answer: Be audience-centered, be knowledgeable, creative, and organized, use appropriate appeals (ethos, logos, pathos), use appropriate presentation techniques, and practice repeatedly
30 How can you overcome a fear of public speaking? REVIEW QUESTIONUnderstand what is happeningFace your fear head onLearn techniques to help you reduce fearPractice<<CLICK>>Answer: Speech anxiety is uneasiness to fearfulness when preparing or giving your speech. The best method is to understand what is happening, face your fear head on, learn techniques to help you reduce fear, and practice.pp
31 How can you be an ethical public speaker? REVIEW QUESTIONUnderstand that ethics helps you develop social relationships with othersSupport and endorse freedom of speechValue diversityRespect the power of languageUse reliable evidence, logic, and reasoningCite sourcesAccept responsibility<<CLICK>> Answer: To be an ethical public speaker:Understand that ethics is a set of standards guiding you to honorable behavior that helps you develop social relationships with others.Support and endorse freedom of speech: the first amendment.Value diversityRespect the power of languageUse reliable evidence, logic, and reasoningCite sources to avoid plagiarismAccept responsibility for your communicationpp
32 What is the creative process for public speaking? REVIEW QUESTIONStartResearchCreatePresentListen and evaluateAnswer: As a process, speech giving is manageable.<<CLICK>> Start: get to know your audience and situation before choosing a topic and purpose<<CLICK>> Research: locate material from a variety of locations and a sources<<CLICK>> Create: work through several outlines developing an organizational strategy and citing sources; create an introduction and conclusion<<CLICK>> Present: use effective language, delivery, and presentation skills<<CLICK>> Listen and evaluate: participate in the speech process by active listening and giving ethical feedbackpp