Presentation on theme: "Radio Operator's Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Radio Operator's Training Drawing shadowed boxes with PowerPoint is easy. Simply use the Rectangle tool to draw the box and then choose Shadowed from the Draw menu.Be sure to delete this word processing box before using this template for your own presentation.British Columbia Forest Service Ministry of Forests
2 RADIO OPERATIONS Ministry of Forests Information Management Group Provided byRick SlampSuperintendent of ElectronicsKamloops Forest RegionModified for Province-Wide use byRADIO OPERATIONS Ministry of ForestsInformation Management GroupVictoria, B.C.Drawing shadowed boxes with PowerPoint is easy. Simply use the Rectangle tool to draw the box and then choose Shadowed from the Draw menu.Be sure to delete this word processing box before using this template for your own presentation.
3 Industry Canada Overall authority for radio use in Canada. Allocates frequencies.Supervises licensing.Issues directives and regulations.Monitors activities to ensure compliance with Radio Act.
4 Regulations - The holder of a Certificate May operate any land or mobile station.EXCEPTIONSA station performing an aeronautical service.A station performing a maritime service.A mobile station installed in an aircraft.A mobile station installed on board a ship.
5 Regulations - Radios MUST: Require only simple Push To Talk (PTT)Have power output <= 250 watts.All frequencies are pre-set within the radio.
6 CERTIFICATESRadiotelephone operator's restricted certificates are issued for life and no revalidation is required.
7 Secrecy of Communications All persons are bound to preserve the secrecy of correspondence.Does NOT apply to distress, urgency, or safety.Does NOT apply to messages addressed to 'ALL STATIONS'Penalty not exceeding $2,500,Or to imprisonment not exceeding twelve months,Or both....Radio operators and all persons are bound to preserve the secrecy of correspondence.These restrictions do not apply to a message of distress, urgency, safety or to messages addressed to 'ALL STATIONS'Any person who violates the secrecy of correspondence is liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty not exceeding $2,500.00, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months, or both.
8 Profane or Obscene language STRICTLY PROHIBITED!
9 Superfluous Communications Communications should be restricted to that necessary for the transmission of authorized messages.Violators are liable, upon conviction to a fine not exceeding $1,000 and costs,Or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months.
10 Radio Station Licences All radio stations must be licensed.Must be posted near the radio equipment.Specifies the call sign of the stationSpecifies the frequencies to be used.All radio stations in Canada must be licensed by the Minister of Communications.The licence must be posted in a conspicuous place near the radio equipment.The radio station licence specifies the call sign of the station and the frequencies to be used for transmitting.Any person who establishes a radio station without the benefit of a radio licence is liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty of up to $2, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months.
11 Radio Station Licences Any person who establishes a radio station without the benefit of a radio licence is liable, on summary conviction, to:A penalty of up to $2,500Or... to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months.
12 Interference & Jamming All radios shall be installed and operated so as not to interfere with or interrupt another radio station.The only exception is to transmit a higher priority call. For example, distress, urgency or safety.All radio stations shall be installed and operated so as not to interfere with or interrupt the working of another radio station.The only exception is to transmit a higher priority call. For example, distress, urgency or other priority messages.Any person who interferes with or obstructs any radio communication is liable, upon summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding $2, and costs, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months, or both
13 Interference & Jamming Any person who interferes with or obstructs any radio communication is liable, upon conviction, to:A fine not exceeding $2,500 and costs,Or... to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months,Or both....
14 False Distress Signals Any person who transmits or causes to be transmitted any false distress signal, is guilty of an offence.Upon conviction the offender is liable to a fine not exceeding $2,500 and costs,Or, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months,Or both....
15 Summary of Penalties Fine Term Profanity $1,000 6 Months. Secrecy $2, MO.Interference $2, MO.False Distress $2, MO.Licence $2, MO.ORAND/ORAND/ORAND/OROR
16 Employer Operating Policy 'DON'T:'Discuss private affairsVoice opinions of employees.Make detrimental remarks.Discuss salaries or appointments.Mention bids, quotes, or contract prices.Say anything to discredit your employer.Discuss anything other than the official business at hand.All transmissions may be overheard.Always assume someone is listening.The media monitor our channels.Scanner are cheap “Radio Shack”
17 Speech Transmission Techniques Keep the rate of speech constant,Not too fast nor too slow.Preserve the rhythm of ordinary conversation.Separate words so that they are not run together.Avoid unnecessary sounds such as 'er' and 'um' between words.Speed-Keep the rate of speech constant, neither too fast nor too slow. Remember that the operator receiving your message may have to write ft down.Rhythm -Preserve the rhythm of ordinary conversation. In separating words so that they are not run together, avoid the introduction of unnecessary sounds such as 'er' and 'um' between words.Speak into the mike not at it. 6” is ideal.
18 Time and DateThe twenty-four hour clock should be used to express time.Time should be expressed by means of four figures,The first two digits represent the hour past midnight.The last two digits represent the minutes past the hour.The twenty-four hour clock system may be used to express time in the Land Service. Time should be expressed and transmitted by means of four figures, the first two denoting the hour past midnight and the last two the minutes past the hour.Examples - 12: a.m. is expressed as :00 noon is expressed as : p.m. is expressed as :00 midnight... is expressed as 2400 or : a.m.. is expressed as : p.m.. is expressed as
19 Time Examples 12:45 a.m. is expressed as 0045 12:00 noon is expressed as 120011:45 p.m. is expressed as 234512:00 midnight is expressed as 2400 or 00001:30 a.m. is expressed as 01301:45 p.m. is expressed as 1345
20 Time and DateTime is usually referenced to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (formerly referred to as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)) to avoid confusion between different time zones.When operations are conducted solely in one time zone, standard or local time may be used.Where the date, as well as the time of day, is required, a six figure group should be used. The first two figures indicate the day of the month and the following four figures indicate the time.We operate in PST only.Greenwich is in England.
21 Phonetic Alphabet A- Alpha B - Bravo C - Charlie D - Delta E - Echo F - FoxtrotG - GolfH - HotelI - IndiaS - SierraT - TangoU - UniformV - VictorW - WhiskyX - XrayY - YankeeZ - ZuluJ - JulietK - KiloL - LimaM - MikeN - NovemberO - OscarP - PapaQ - QuebecR - Romeo
31 Transmission of Numbers All numbers except whole thousands should be transmitted by pronouncing each digit separately.Whole thousands should be transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number of thousands followed by the word 'thousand'.
32 Transmission of Numbers - Examples becomes one zerobecomes seven fivebecomes one zero zero5, becomes five eight zero zero11, becomes one one thousand68,009 becomes six eight zero zero nine
33 Transmission of Numbers - Decimal Point Numbers containing a decimal point shall be transmitted with the decimal point indicated by the word 'decimal'.Example -121.5 becomes - one two one decimal five
34 Transmission of Numbers - Money Monetary denominations, when transmitted with groups of digits, should be transmitted in the sequence in which they are written.Examples -$17.25 becomes - dollars one seven decimal two five.75 becomes - seven five cents
35 Control of Communications In communications between a base station and a mobile station, the base station has control of communications in matters relating to:The order and time of transmission.The choice of frequency.The duration and suspension of work.This does not apply in the cases of distress or urgency communications,
36 Call Signs A call sign is assigned to base stations. Should be used at least when initial contact is being established and again when the communication is concluded.In cases of mobile stations and hand-held units, a readily recognizable identifier such as fleet car or truck number should be used.
37 Call Signs - Examples Base Stations CJM702 XLT76 Kamloops Mobile StationsCar five one Expressway one four two
38 Calling ProceduresBefore transmitting, listen for a period of time to ensure that your transmission will not cause harmful interference to calls already in progress.If such interference seems likely... WAIT for the channel to clear.Distress, urgency or safety communications are entitled to interrupt a transmission of lower priority.Before transmitting, the operator of every station shall Listen for -a period of time to satisfy himself/herself that the transmission will not cause harmful interference to communications already in progress.If such Interference seems likely, the operator should wait for the first break in the transmission.A station having distress, urgency or safety communications to transmit is entitled to interrupt at any time a transmission of lower priority which is in progress.
39 Single Station CallThe identity of the station being called is always spoken first, followed by the words 'THIS IS' and your own station identifier.1. Call sign of the station called.2. The words THIS IS'.3. Call sign of the station calling.4. Invitation to reply.<= 3 times
40 Single Station Call - Examples FREIGHTWAY TWO FIVE ZEROTHIS ISFREIGHTWAY MONTREALXMT FIVE NINEOVERXMV FIVE EIGHT THREEXLT SEVEN SIX
41 Multiple Station CallIf it is desired to call more than one station simultaneously, the call signs of the stations may be transmitted in any convenient sequence preceding the words “THIS IS”.
42 Multiple Station Call - Examples RED LINE CABS ONE TWO, THREE FOUR, FIVE SIXTHIS ISXMV FIVE EIGHT THREEOVERXLR TWO NINE, XLR THREE ZERO, XMN THREE EIGHT
43 General CallWhen a mobile wishes to establish communication with any station within range, or within a certain area, the call should be made as follows:1. General call ( <= 3 times).2. The words 'THIS IS'.3. Call sign of the station calling ( <= 3 times).4. Invitation to reply.General Call is “ALL STATIONS”
44 ReplyingAn operator hearing a call directed to their station shall reply as soon as possible.Advise the calling station to proceed with their message with the words 'GO AHEAD'.When an operator hears a call but is uncertain that the call is intended for their station, they should WAIT until the call has been repeated and is understood.
45 DO NOT JUST IGNORE THE CALL IF YOU'RE BUSY ! Not Ready to Receive ?If the station is not ready to receive the message, the operator should reply to the call and advise the calling station to 'STAND BY', followed by the anticipated number of minutes of delay.DO NOT JUST IGNORE THE CALL IF YOU'RE BUSY !No feedback on the system.Caller may assume something is wrong with radio.It’s very quiet and lonely out there.
46 AircraftBird Dog 007At the speeds aircraft travel, a delay in answering their call (even a minute) can result in the plane or helicopter moving a great distance and affecting your ability to communicate with them. Please give aircraft a higher priority when responding to calls.
47 CorrectionsWhen an error has been made in transmission, the word 'CORRECTION' should be spoken, and the last correct word or phrase repeated and the correct version transmitted.
48 RepetitionsIf the receiving station desires repetition of a message, the operator should request it by using the words 'SAY AGAIN'.EXAMPLESAY AGAIN ALL BEFORE .... (first word satisfactorily received)SAY AGAIN .... (word before missing portion) to .... (word after missing portion)SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER .... (last word satisfactorily received).
49 Radio (or Signal) Checks When your radio requires a radio check, follow this procedure:1. Call another station and request a radio check.2. The radio check consists of :“RADIO CHECK 1,2,3,4,5.HOW DO YOU READ ME? OVER.”3. Your call sign should be transmitted during test transmissions.4. Radio checks should not last more than 10 seconds.Explain the old 5X5 code1st 5 represents signal strength.2nd 5 represents quality.
50 Radio (or Signal) Checks When replying to a radio check, the following readability scale should be used:1. Bad (unreadable)2. Poor (readable now and then)3. Fair (readable but with difficulty)4. Good (readable)5. Excellent (perfectly readable)
51 Radio LogBase stations are required to keep a log or diary of the activities of the station.Mobile or portable stations are not required to keep a log.Logs are to be retained on file (follow current ARCS / ORCS procedures).Radio logs shall be available for inspection.
52 Procedural Words & Phrases While it is not practical to set down precise phraseology for all radiotelephone procedures, slang expressions such as :BREAKER BREAKERGOOD BUDDY,HAVE YAH GOT YER EARS ON ?should not be used....
53 Procedural Words & Phrases ACKNOWLEDGEAFFIRMATIVEBREAKCHANNELCLEAREDCONFIRMCORRECTIONDISREGARDGO AHEADHOW DO YOU READ?I SAY AGAINMAYDAYMAYDAY RELAYMONITORNEGATIVEOUTOVERPAN PANREAD BACKROGERROGER NUMBERSAY AGAINSTAND BYSEELONCESEELONCE FEENEESEELONCE MAYDAYVERIFYWILCOWORDS TWICE
54 Procedural Words & Phrases ACKNOWLEDGE Let me know that you have received and understood this message.AFFIRMATIVE Yes or permission granted.BREAK Indicates the separation between portions of the message. (To be used where there is no clear distinction between the text and other portions of the message.)CHANNEL Change to channel .... before proceeding.CLEARED Authorized to proceed under the conditions specified.CONFIRM My version is .... is that correct?CORRECTION An error has been made in this transmission (message indicated).The correct version is....
55 Procedural Words & Phrases DISREGARD Consider this transmission as not sent.GO AHEAD Proceed with your message.HOW DO YOU READ? Self-explanatory.I SAY AGAIN Self-explanatory (use instead of "I REPEAT").MAYDAY The spoken word for distress communications.MAYDAY RELAY The spoken word for the distress relay signal.MONITOR Listen on (frequency).NEGATIVE No or that is not correct or I do not agree.OUT Conversation is ended and no response is expected.OVER My transmission is ended and I expect a response from you.
56 Procedural Words & Phrases PAN PAN The spoken word for urgency communications.READ BACK Repeat all of this message back to me exactly as received after I have given "OVER" (do not use the word "REPEAT").ROGER I have received all of your last transmission.ROGER NUMBER I have received your message Number__.SAY AGAIN Self-explanatory. (Do not use the word "REPEAT")STAND BY I must pause for a few seconds or minutes please wait.SEELONCE International expression to indicate that silence has been imposed on the frequency due to a distress situation. The aeronautical phrase is "STOP TRANSMITTING".
57 Procedural Words & Phrases SEELONCE FEENEE Is the international expression for a distress cancellation. The aeronautical phrase is DISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDED.SEELONCE MAYDAY Is the international expression to inform individual(s) that a distress situation is in progress. The aeronautical phrase is "STOP TRANSMlTTlNG - MAYDAY”.THAT IS CORRECT Self-explanatory.VERIFY Check coding, check text with originator and send correct version.WlLCO Your instructions received, understood and will be complied with.WORDS TWICE (a) As a request: Communication is difficult, please send each word twice. (b) As information: Since communication is difficult, I will send each word twice.
58 Failure of Communications When contact with a base station fails on the selected frequency, the mobile should try to establish contact on another frequency (if available) appropriate to the area in which it is operating.When normal communications from a base station to a mobile cannot be established, the base station should try to relay the message via any other station which may be able to establish communications.
59 Emergency Communications Use of emergency procedures in land communications is VERY RAREA station in distress should make use of any means at its disposal to attract attention, to make known its position and obtain assistance.Use the frequency you would normally use but if unable to establish communications, use any other frequency at your disposal.
60 Priorities of Communications 1. Distress communications.2. Urgency communications.3. Safety communications.4. All other communications.
61 Distress Signal - MAYDAY The distress signal indicates that the station sending the signal is either:Threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance, orAware that an aircraft, ship or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.
62 PIPER ALPHA X-RAY CHARLIE CHARLIE Distress Call1) The distress signal 'MAYDAY' spoken three times;2) The words ‘THIS IS’;3) The call sign of the station in distress spoken three times.Example -MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAYTHIS ISPIPER ALPHA X-RAY CHARLIE CHARLIE
63 Control of Distress Traffic The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the station in distress or...Of the station which relays the distress message.Note: These stations may, delegate the control of distress traffic to another station.
64 Distress Message 1) The distress signal 'MAYDAY'; 2) The call sign of station in distress (once);3) The nature of the distress condition and kind of assistance required (i.e. what has happened);4) The intentions of the person in command;5) The particulars of it's position (airspeed, altitude, heading);6) The number of persons on board and injuries (if applicable);7) Any other information that might facilitate rescue;8) The call sign of the station in distress.
65 Distress Message - Example MAYDAYPIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBECPOSITION: 20 MILES EAST OF WINNIPEGALTITUDE: 1500 FEETAIRSPEED: 125 KNOTSHEADING : 270 TSTRUCK BY LIGHTNINGDITCHING AIRCRAFTONE PERSON ON BOARD
66 Repetition of Distress Message The distress message shall be repeated at intervals until an answer is received or untilAllow time for stations receiving the message to reply.Any station hearing an unacknowledged distress message and is not in a position to render assistance, shall take all possible steps to attract the attention of other stations that are in a position to assist.Notify search and rescue.
67 Action by Station in Distress SUMMARY:1) Transmit the distress call;2) Transmit the distress message;3) Listen for acknowledgement of receipt;4) Exchange further distress traffic as applicable;5) Turn on automatic emergency equipment(emergency locator transmitter - ELT) if available.
68 Receipt of Distress Message 1) The call sign of the station in distress.2) The words 'THIS IS'3) The call sign of the station acknowledging receipt.4) The words 'RECEIVED MAYDAY'EXAMPLE -PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBECTHIS ISWINNIPEG TOWERRECEIVED MAYDAY
69 Relay of a Distress Message 1) The signal MAYDAY RELAY (spoken three times)2) The words 'THIS IS'3) The call sign of the station relaying the message (three times)4) The distress signal 'MAYDAY' (once)5) The particulars of the station in distress such as its location, the nature of distress, the number of persons on board, etc.
70 Distress Message Relay - Example MAYDAY RELAY, MAYDAY RELAY, MAYDAY RELAYTHIS ISCESSNA NOVEMBER JULIET INDIA (three times)MAYDAYPIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBECPOSITION: 20 MILES EAST OF WINNIPEGALTITUDE: 1500 FEET; AIRSPEED: 125 KNOTS; HEADING: 270 TSTRUCK BY LIGHTNING, DITCHING AIRCRAFTONE PERSON ON BOARD
71 Action by Receiving Station 1. Forward information immediately to search and rescue.2. Continue to guard the frequency on which the distress message was received and, if possible, any other frequency that may be used by the station in distress.3. Notify any station with direction finding or radar facilities which may be of assistance ... etc.4. Cease all transmissions which may interfere with the distress traffic.
72 Transmit a MAYDAY When: 1) Threatened by grave and imminent danger and require immediate assistance2) Aware that an aircraft, ship or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.3) The station in distress is not in a position to transmit the message.4) The person in command of the station which intervenes believes that further help is necessary.
73 Imposition of SilenceThe station in distress, or the station in command of distress traffic, may impose silence on all stations in the area or on any station which interferes with the distress traffic.The station in distress, or the station in command of distress traffic, may impose silence on all stations in the area or on any station which interferes with the distress traffic.The station in distress, or the station in control, shall use the expression 'STOP TRANSMITTING - DISTRESS' or the international expression 'SILENCE MAYDAY' or 'SEELONCE MAYDAY'.Other stations imposing silence during a distress situation shall use the expression 'STOP TRANSMITTING- DISTRESS' or use the international expression 'SILENCE DISTRESS' or 'SEELONCE DISTRESS'.
74 Imposition of Silence - Procedures The station in distress, or the station in control, shall use the expression:‘STOP TRANSMITTING - DISTRESS’ or ..use the international expression:'SILENCE MAYDAY' or 'SEELONCE MAYDAY'Other stations imposing silence during a distress situation shall use the expression:'STOP TRANSMITTING - DISTRESS' or...'SILENCE DISTRESS' or 'SEELONCE DISTRESS'.
75 Cancellation of Distress When a station is no longer in distress, send a message addressed to 'ALL STATIONS' advising that the distress traffic has ended.This is mainly for the benefit of other stations so they can resume regular service on the distress frequencies.To ensure that search and rescue stations are advised that a station is no longer in distress, a call to the nearest search and rescue station detailing the reasons for cancelling the distress call MUST be made.When a station is no longer in distress, (i.e., rescue operation has concluded), the station that was in distress, the rescue vessel or the station that controlled distress traffic shall transmit a message addressed to 'ALL STATIONS' advising that the distress traffic has ended.The procedure outlined here is mainly for the benefit of other stations so they can resume regular service on the distress frequencies.To ensure that search and rescue stations are advised that a station is no longer in distress, a normal call to the nearest search and rescue station detailing the reasons for canceling the distress call MUST be made.
76 Distress Cancelling Procedure 1. The distress signal "MAYDAY' (once);2. The words 'ALL STATIONS' (three times);3. The words 'THIS IS ';4. The name and/or call sign of the station transmitting the message (<= three times);5. The filing time of the message;6. The call sign of the station in distress (once);7. The words 'DISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDED' or the international expression 'SILENCE FINISHED' or 'SEELONCE FEENEE';8. A short plain-language description of why the distress situation is being cancelled;9. The name or call sign of station transmitting the message;10. The word ‘OUT’.
77 Distress Cancelling - Example MAYDAYALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONSTHIS ISWINNIPEG TOWERTIME 1630 ZPIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBECDISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDEDLOCATED BY SEARCH AND RESCUEOUT
78 Urgency Communications The urgency signal indicates that the station calling has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of an aircraft, ship or other vehicle, or the safety of a person.The urgency signal is 'PAN PAN' spoken three times. It should be used at the beginning of the first communication.The urgency signal and the urgency message may be addressed to all stations or to a specific station.
79 Priority of Urgency Signal The urgency signal has priority over all other communications EXCEPT DISTRESS.Stations that hear only the urgency signal shall continue to listen for at least three minutes. After that, if no urgency message has been heard, stations may resume normal service.Use your normal working frequency or any other frequency available to establish communications.
80 Urgency Message 1. The urgency signal "PAN PAN" (three times); 2. The name of the station addressed or the words 'ALL STATIONS" (three times);3. The words 'THIS IS';4. The identification of the aircraft;5. The nature of the urgency condition;6. The intentions of the person in command;7. Present position, flight level or altitude and heading;8. Any other useful information.
81 Urgency Message - Example PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PANALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONSTHIS ISCESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIET INDIAPOSITION: UNKNOWNAIRSPEED: 112 KNOTSALTITUDE: 1050 FEETLOST, REQUEST RADAR CHECKOVER
82 Urgency Message Reply- Example PAN PANCESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIET INDIATHIS IS WINNIPEG TOWERYOUR POSITION IS 20 MILES SOUTH OF WINNIPEGWINNIPEG TOWERSTANDING BY
83 Urgency Message Cancel - Example PAN PANALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONSTHIS ISCESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULLIET INDIACESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULLIET INDIA HAS BEEN POSITIONED AT 20 MILES SOUTH OF WINNIPEG AIRPORT, PROCEEDING NORMALLYOUT
84 Safety Communications The safety signal is used mainly in the maritime mobile service. It indicates that the station calling is about to transmit a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings.The safety signal is the word 'SECURITY' spoken three times. It should be used at the beginning of the first communication.The safety signal and the safety message may be addressed to all stations or to a specific station.
85 Safety Communications Priority The safety signal has priority over all other communications except distress and urgency.Stations that hear the safety signal shall continue to listen on the frequency on which the message was transmitted until they are satisfied that the message is of no interest to them.All stations that hear the safety signal must take care not to interfere with the safety message which follows it.
86 Safety Message 1. The safety signal 'SECURITY' (three times); 2. The name of the station addressed or 'ALL STATIONS' (repeated three times);3. The words 'THIS IS';4. The name or call sign of the station sending the message.5. The nature of the condition;6. The words 'THIS IS';7. The name or call sign of the station sending the message.
87 Safety Message - Example SECURITY, SECURITY, SECURITYALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONSTHIS IS VANCOUVER RADIONOTICE TO ALL VESSELS IN THE MERRY ISLAND AREALOG BOOM ADRIFT AND BREAKING UP SIX MILES SOUTH OF MERRY ISLANDOUT
88 Equipment Maintenance Microphone and Antenna ConnectionsThere are various types of connectors used to attach cables to the electronic equipment. Each connector requires its own assembly technique. Care should be exercised when repairing or replacing connectors. The main problems with connectors are shorts (when two bare wires are touching either each other or the metal case) or open wires (when the wire is broken inside the plastic shield or outer covering).All connections should be tight and clean. Where connections are exposed to the weather, they should be protected with a coating of silicone to prevent corrosion build-up and to keep water from getting inside the outer casing of the cable.
89 Trouble Shooting IF THE SET DOES NOT APPEAR TO WORK: You may be out of range.Check antenna system (Connections clean? Tight? Cable OK?)Check Power Source (battery polarity correct? car battery charged? dry batteries dead?)Check microphone cable (connections clean? Tight? coil-cord damaged?Check antenna for damage ..
90 Equipment Maintenance FusesElectric circuits are protected against overload and short circuits by fuses, each rated for a given amperage. Never replace a fuse with one of a higher rating. That will simply compromise or negate its protective function and create a definite fire hazard.Fuses (or circuit breakers, if your electrical system is so equipped) act as safety valves. When something goes wrong with a circuit, the fuse for that circuit blows (or the breaker trips off), shutting down power to the circuit. In addition to preventing overheating and possible. fire, this action also warns you there is a problem on the circuit. The fault should be corrected before the fuse is replaced.Note - Always exercise caution when changing a fuse. Make sure that your hands are dry.
92 REPEATERS Relays or “Repeats” radio signals to extend range. Receive on one frequency while simultaneously transmitting on another (Duplex).Forest Service has 10 sets of repeater frequencies to which we have assigned “Colour” names (e.g.: Red, Blue)Forest Service has over 300 repeaters.Each site costs about $50,000.Most powered by batteries charged by solar panels.Transmit about the same power as a portable radio.Most repeaters are linked to other repeaters in either a “star” or “chain” arrangement.