Presentation on theme: "The Expansion of Settlement in the West. The Canadian Government wanted to move people and supplies into the West, but there was no easy way to do this."— Presentation transcript:
The Canadian Government wanted to move people and supplies into the West, but there was no easy way to do this. A railway would solve many of the problems involved with settlement of the West. The Government had to consider the First Nations who were already living there, and the Metis were also sending petitions to the Government, without much response.
The Land Treaties and Settlement Settlers were beginning to move into First Nations land as settlement edged West. There were many conflicts between the two groups over who the land belonged to. The Canadian Government decided that in order to solve the problem, Land Claims would be purchased and written. The Canadian Government would ‘buy’ the land, take the First Nations off it, and then divide it for settlement.
a) Land Treaties Treaties: legal documents outlining agreements between nations In the Land Treaties, First Nations agreed to give up their rights to land upon which they had lived for centuries. In return, the Government promised several things. Gov’t would : Recognize right to live, hunt and fish on individual reserves Provide payments for the land given up Supply farm equipment, livestock, etc. for farm production Build schools on reserves
Between 1871 and 1877, there were seven major treaties signed. First Nations, like the Blackfoot, were now restricted to reserves, and no longer had the freedom to live wherever they wanted. THE PROBLEM First Nations peoples could no longer take care of themselves without help. They did not know how to farm, and they were unable to hunt across the prairies.
Indian Act- 1876 This act created the idea of an Indian Status Status: term that identified people as First Nations ▫Only “full blooded” first nations could have status – metis not eligible ▫F.N. Women who married non-First Nations lost status and the right to live on a reserve ▫Non-status women who married status men gained status ▫Companies could have a license to access wood on reserves ▫F. N. people who committed crimes would be tried in a Canadian Court ▫Had to give up Indian Status to have full Canadian Citizenship
Indian Act Cont. It began a process to move all First Nations onto reserves and set up a way of governing them. The idea was to have First Nations give up their traditions, and accept the culture, customs and language of ‘Canada’. ▫Children were taken away and moved to Residential Schools ▫Those who did not sign the agreement, were ‘non- status’ and technically had no rights.
b) Settlement of the West In 1871, the population in the West was very small. There were not enough people in the rest of Canada to simply move out West; the government needed people from outside of Canada.
The Immigration Act -1869 The main purpose of the Immigration Act was to manage the flow of immigrants to Canada, and to keep people with contagious diseases out. Limits were put on the number of people per ship Ships had to show passenger lists to government officials on arrival
The Dominion Lands Act- 1872Set up rules about how western land would be used. Land Distribution The Prairies were divided into townships, and each township was divided into 36 sections. 2 for schools, 2 for HBC, 16 of the sections were Homesteads, 16 for sale to pay for the railway. Homesteads were purchased for $10, if a house was built or some land was worked within 3 years. ▫Failure to this meant the land was given back to the government
People who successfully broke up the land and began to farm were known as SODBUSTERS Heritage Minute Clip
The ‘Road Allowance People’ ▫The Metis tried to ‘homestead’ but found it difficult ▫They were not treated the same as immigrant settlers, and they could not get modern steam- driven equipment, and had to rely on hand tools. How might this have affected the relationship between the Metis and the Government?
Think about it… and let’s talk! 1) What was the purpose behind expanding Canada westward? 2)How did decisions made in Confederation affect Western expansion?