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**Chapter 14 Fluids Key contents Description of fluids**

Pascal’s principle Archimedes’ principle Ideal fluids Equation of continuity Bernoulli’s equation

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**A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance that can flow. **

14.2 What is a Fluid? A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance that can flow. Fluids conform to the boundaries of any container in which we put them. They do so because a fluid cannot sustain a force that is tangential to its surface. That is, a fluid is a substance that flows because it cannot withstand a shearing stress. It can, however, exert a force in the direction perpendicular to its surface.

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**The SI unit of density is kg/m3. **

14.3 Density and Pressure It is more useful to consider density and pressure for a fluid, which may take different values for different parts of the fluid. The SI unit of density is kg/m3. The SI unit of pressure is N/m2, which is given a special name, the pascal (Pa). 1 atmosphere (atm) = 1.01x105 Pa =760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 lb/in.2 = 1.01 bar = 1013 mbar (mb).

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14.3 Density and Pressure

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14.3 Density and Pressure

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**Example, Atmospheric Pressure and Force**

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14.4: Fluids at Rest The pressure at a point in a fluid in static equilibrium depends on the depth of that point but not on any horizontal dimension of the fluid or its container. If y1 is at the surface and y2 is at a depth h below the surface, then (where po is the pressure at the surface, and p the pressure at depth h).

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Example:

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Example:

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14.6: Pascal’s Principle A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of its container.

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**14.6: Pascal’s Principle and the Hydraulic Lever**

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**Fb = mf g (buoyant force),**

14.7: Archimedes’ Principle When a body is fully or partially submerged in a fluid, a buoyant force from the surrounding fluid acts on the body. The force is directed upward and has a magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid that has been displaced by the body. Fb = mf g (buoyant force), where mf is the mass of the fluid that is displaced by the body.

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**14.7: Archimedes’ Principle: Floating and Apparent Weight**

When a body floats in a fluid, the magnitude Fb of the buoyant force on the body is equal to the magnitude Fg of the gravitational force on the body. That means, when a body floats in a fluid, the magnitude Fg of the gravitational force on the body is equal to the weight mfg of the fluid that has been displaced by the body, where mf is the mass of the fluid displaced. That is, a floating body displaces its own weight of fluid. The apparent weight of an object in a fluid is less than the actual weight of the object in vacuum, and is equal to the difference between the actual weight of a body and the buoyant force on the body.

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**Example, Floating, buoyancy, and density**

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**14.8: Ideal Fluids in Motion**

Realistic fluids are complicated. We usually study ‘ideal’ fluids as a model to obtain many useful results. An ideal fluid is a fluid with the following four assumptions: Steady flow: In steady (or laminar) flow, the velocity of the moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with time. Incompressible flow: We assume, as for fluids at rest, that our ideal fluid is incompressible; that is, its density has a constant, uniform value. Nonviscous flow: The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow; viscosity is the fluid analog of friction between solids. An object moving through a nonviscous fluid would experience no viscous drag force—that is, no resistive force due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed through the fluid. Irrotational flow: In irrotational flow a test body suspended in the fluid will not rotate about an axis through its own center of mass.

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**(incompressible fluids )**

14.9: The Equation of Continuity (incompressible fluids ) (a more general statement)

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Example: Water Stream

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**14.10: Bernoulli’s Equation**

Fig Fluid flows at a steady rate through a length L of a tube, from the input end at the left to the output end at the right. From time t in (a) to time t+Dt in (b), the amount of fluid shown in purple enters the input end and the equal amount shown in green emerges from the output end. If the speed of a fluid element increases as the element travels along a horizontal streamline, the pressure of the fluid must decrease, and conversely.

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**14.10: Bernoulli’s Equation: Proof**

The change in kinetic energy of the system is the work done on the system. If the density of the fluid is r, The work done by gravitational forces is: The net work done by the (outside) fluid is: Therefore, Finally,

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**Example: Bernoulli’s Principle**

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**Example-2: Bernoulli’s Principle**

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Homework: Problems 20, 36, 54, 67, 71

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