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The Teaching Profession

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1 The Teaching Profession
‘’Teachers...are the most responsible and important member of society because their professional efforts affect the fate of the future ’’. Helen Caldicott

2 Seven Philosophies of Education
Essentialism Contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge,skills and values. Progressivism Progressivists accept the impermanence of life and the inevitability of change. ‘’ Change is the only thing that does not change’’.

3 Perennialism Existensialism
The perennialist curriculum is a universal one on the view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. It is heavy on the humanities,on general education.It is not a specialist curriculum but rather a general one. There is less emphasis on vocational and technical education. Existensialism The main concern of the existentialists is to ‘’help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their thoughts,feelings and actions’’. ‘Existence precedes essence’.

4 Linguistic Philosophy
Behaviorism Behaviorist schools are concerned with the modification and shaping of students behavior by providing for a favorable environment, since they believe that they are a product of environment. Linguistic Philosophy It develops communication skills of the learner, to articulate, to voice out the meaning and values of things that one obtains from his/her experience of life and the world is the very essence of man.

5 Constructivism To develop intrinsically motivated and independent learners adequately equipped with learning and skills for them to be able to construct knowledge and make meaning of them.

6 Formulating your philosophy of Education Philosophy is vital only when the questions are mine and so is the struggle towards answers. – W Luijpen Your philosophy of education is your ‘’window’’ to the world and ‘’compass’’ in life. Your philosophy of education is reflected in your dealings with students, colleagues, parents and administrators. Your attitude towards problems in life as a whole has an underlying philosophy. Philosophy of education includes our concept about: The human person, the learner in particular and the educated person. What is true and good and therefore must be taught. How a learner must be taught in order to come close to the truth.

7 The Foundational Principles of Morality and You When you carry out acts of kindness you get a wonderful feeling inside. It is as though something inside your body responds and says, yes, this is how I ought to feel. - Unknown What is morality? Morality refers to ‘the quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong, good or evil’’. Your human action is right when it conforms with the norm, rule or law of morality.(Panizo, 1964) What is meant of foundational moral principle: Came from a Latin word princeps which means a beginning a source. A principle is that on which something is based, founded, originated initiated.

8 What is natural law? It is the law “written in the hearts of men’’ (Romans 2:15) For theists, it is ‘’man’s share in the Eternal Law of God’’ According to St. Thomas it is ‘’the light of the natural reason, whereby we discern what is good and what is evil…… It is the law that says. ‘’ Do good and avoid evil .’’ THIS IS THE FUNDAMENTAL OF MORAL PRINCIPLE .

9 Teacher as a person of good moral character The preamble of our Code of Ethics of a Professional Teachers, ‘’ teachers are duly licensed professionals who possess dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence’’. Four ways of describing good moral character according to one Christian author: 1.Being fully human 2.Being a loving person 3.Being a virtuous person 4. Being a morally mature person

10 Value Formation and You Education in values means the cultivation of affectivity, leading the educand through exposure to an experience of value and of the valuable –R Aquino

11 Max Scheler’s hierarchy of values
Pleasure Values The pleasant against the unpleasant The agreeable against the disagreeable Vital Values Values pertaining to the well being either of the individual or of the community Spiritual Values Values independent of the whole sphere of the body and of the environment Grasped in spiritual acts of preferring, loving and hating Values of the Holy Appear only in regard to objects intentionally given as “ absolute objects”.

12 Teaching as your Vocation, Mission and Profession One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with guarantee to those who touched our human feelings…. Carl Jung Vocation – came from a Latin word ‘’vocare’’ which means call. Based on the etymology of the word, therefore means a call. Mission – came from the Latin word ‘’misio’’ which means ‘’to send’’.

13 Teaching Mission and/or Job?
If you are doing it only because you are paid for it, it’s a job; If you are doing it not only for the pay but also for service it’s a mission If you quit because your boss or colleague criticized you, it’s a job; If you keep on teaching out of love, it’s a mission If you teach because it does not interfere with your other activities, it’s a job; If you are committed to teaching even if it means letting to go of other activities, it’s a mission If you quit because no one praises or thanks you for what you do, it’s a job; If you remain teaching even though nobody recognizes your efforts, it’s a mission. It is hard to get excited about a teaching job; Its almost impossible not to get excited about a mission If our concern is success it’s a job; If our concern is success plus faithfulness, it’s a mission An average school is filled by teachers doing their job; A great school is filled with teachers involved in a mission of teaching. Adapted from Ministry of Job Anna Sandberg

14 Based Teacher Standard
Chapter Two The Teacher in the Classroom and Community ‘’The teacher is a diplomat and ambassador of tact and sensitivity, as he/she facilitates productive, positive interactions, among the multiplicity of personalities, cultures, belief and ideals - Unknown National Competency Based Teacher Standard

15 The NCBTs are the standards of good teaching in the Philippines
The NCBTs are the standards of good teaching in the Philippines. It consists of 7 domains, 21 strands and 80 performance indicators. The ideal teacher functions well in the classroom as well in the community. He/She does the following: serves as a positive and powerful model of learning and leaving; provides a social, psychological, and physical environment that is conducive for learning because students from varied backgrounds are treated with respect, engaged in different learning activities and are motivated to work towards high standards of learning; facilitates the learning process by considering diversity of learners; Implements curriculum effectively by making students understands curriculum goals and standards, by his/her mastery of subject matter and skillful use of teaching- learning strategies and activities and learning resources

16 aligns assessment to curricular goals, objectives and standards, uses assessments results to improve teaching- learning , and report assessment results to those concerned; links with communities to help attain curricular goals; and Demonstrates a high regard for the teaching profession and embarks in a continuing professional development The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers comprising of a Preamble and 13 articles spells out how the teacher should relate to the state, the community, the teaching profession itself, the teaching community, higher authorities in the Philippines, school officials, fellow teachers and other personnel, the learners, and the parents. It also states how the teacher should conduct himself/herself as a person at all places at all times including his/her business and financial matter.

17 The 21st Century Teacher ‘’If we teach today as we taught yesterday we rob our children of tomorrow’’ John Dewey The 21st category skills of a teacher Communication Skills Learning and innovation skills Information media and technology skills Life and Career Skills

18 Communication Skills Learning and Innovation Skills Life and Career Skills Information Media and Technology Skills Teaming Creativity Flexibility and Adaptability Visual and Information Litiracies Collaboration Curiosity Leadership and Responsibility Media Literacy Interpersonal Skill Critical Thinking Problem Solving Skills Social and Cross- Cultural Skills Basic, Scientific , Economic and Technological Literacies Local, National and Global Orientedness Risk Taking Initiative and Self Direction Multi cultural Litiracies Interactive Communication Productivity and Accountability

19 Visual Literacy – ability to interpret, make meaning from the information presented in the form of an image. Information Literacy- ability to identify what information is needed, identify the best sources of information for a given need, locate the sources, evaluate the sources critically and share that information. Media Literacy – ability to critically analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us every day. Scientific Literacy- encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations and theories. Economic Literacy- ability to apply basic economic concepts in situations relevant to one’s life. Technological Literacy- the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning, productivity, and performance.

20 School and Community Relations It takes a village to raise a child African Proverb
A favorable partnership between the school and the community will yield bountiful harvest by way of establishing a conducive learning environment in the school and an orderly and civic minded citizenry in the community. The teachers are committed to spend time, effort and expertise in serving the academic needs and interests of community members while the community leadership and authorities are equally willing to provide assistance by way of material resources and learning center for the school population Teachers and parents from the community can establish a close relationship that can pave the way towards a better understanding of the difficulties met in both locations and jointly suggesting positive solutions. The same holds true with the strengthening of values and attitudes of students through modeling by the teacher in school and by parents at home

21 Linkages and Networking with Organizations
We cannot live for ourselves alone. Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads And along these sympathetic fibers, our actions run as causes and return to us a results. Linkages or interconnections, with institutions functioning along the same mission are intended to serve members of both sides according to their respective needs, interests and objectives. Networking is a grid/web whose members actively demonstrate how they can work together to attain common objectives, undertake innovative practices and update members regarding breakthrough in different disciplines.

22 International Linkages are as follow: Pi Lambda Theta INNOTECH
World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) Networking With Foundations The Educational Research and Development Assistance ( ERDA) Metrobank Foundation Inc. Network of Outstanding Teachers and Educators (NOTED) Ayala Foundation Inc. GMA Foundation SM Foundation Inc. Foundation for Upgrading Standards in Education (FUSE) Philippine Foundation for Science and Technology (PFST) Books for the Barrio and Asia Foundation Bato Balani Foundation Philippine Business for Education ( PBed)

23 Chapter Three On becoming a Global Teacher Being world class does not mean going internationally and showing our best out there. Being world class is a passion and commitment to our profession; being world class is giving our best to teaching. Being world class starts right inside the classroom. – Conrado de Quiros

24 Global Education and Global Teachers Benchmarking is learning the best from the past practices of the world’s best educational systems.

25 The United Nations 6 goals to achieve some standards of education place in by 2015 worldwide
Expand early childhood care education; Provide free and compulsory primary education for all; Promote learning and life skills for young and adult; Increase adult literacy by 50% Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender quality by 2015; Improve quality education

26 Global Teachers Qualities of a Global Filipino Teachers:
* is a competent teacher who is armed with enough skills, appropriate attitude and universal values to teach students with both time tested as well as modern technologies in education in any place in the world. *he or she is someone who thinks and acts both locally and globally with world –wide perspectives, right in the communities where he or she is situated. Qualities of a Global Filipino Teachers: understands how this world is interconnected recognizes that the world has rich variety of ways of life has a vision of the future sees what the future would be for himself/herself and the students must be creative and innovative; must understand ,respect and be tolerant of the diversity of cultures. must believe and take action for education that will sustain the future; must be able to facilitate digitally- mediated learning; must have depth of knowledge must possess good communication skills ( for Filipino teachers to be multi- lingual). must possess the competencies of a professional teacher as embodied in the National Competency- Based Standards for teachers ( NCBTS)

27 A Closer Look on the Education System of Selected Countries Benchmarking is learning the best from the best practices of the world’s best educational systems. Multicultural education anchors on the diversity of learners . It enables teachers and educators to give value to the differences in prior knowledge, experiences of learners from diverse background and familiarity with students’ histories of diverse cultures Teachers should teach and students should learn about the values shared by virtually all cultural groups like justice, equality, compassion and charity among others. Kindergarten or pre school, now made compulsory by the virtue of Republic Act 10157, institutionalize universal kindergarten. For every exit level ( Grade 6, Grade 10, Grade 12 ) in educational structure in basic education , a student is certified through a diploma or a certificate completion. The certificate or diploma is one of the requirements for entrance to higher or tertiary education, which is available almost in almost all of the countries. With the implementation of K to 12 in the Philippines, the number of years in basic education is now equal to those of the countries in the world.

28 Multicultural Diversity: A challenge to Global Teachers All men are pretty much alike. It is only by culture that they are set apart. Confucius Teacher Exchange Programs enhance professional development and broaden perspectives The major goal of multicultural education is to transform the school so that the male and female students, exceptional learners, as well as students coming from diverse cultural, social –class, racial and ethnic groups will experience an equal opportunity to learn in school ( James Banks 1975 Sadker,1991)

29 Multiculturalism has broadened and deepened our traditional curriculum into a wider range of accommodating cultures not of the teachers’ cultural alone. It has understood fundamental concepts which before were given less importance. Below are some basic assumptions that will enhance teacher development No two learners are alike. Children in all classrooms are heterogeneous. Strategies that work with one leaner may not work with the another. Student’s background and experiences should be considered when teaching. Community members from various ethnic groups can assist teachers in facing issues of ethnic differences and similarities.

30 Broadening Teaching Perspectives: Teacher Exchange Programs We cannot hold the torch to light another ‘s path without brightening our own – Ben Sweetland To become a global teacher, you need to broaden your teaching perspectives. Expanding your experiences beyond the confines of your classroom to the wider learning environment of the world is one of the many avenues in order to achieve a global of competitiveness. Opportunities for this endeavor can be achieved through teacher exchange programs. See below programs that still exists: Visiting International Faculty Program Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program Inter-African Teacher Exchanges Canadian Educators exchange Global Teachers Millennium Awards

31 Bringing the World Into the Classroom Through Educational Technology ‘’Digitally-mediated learning encompasses more than knowledge of new technology tools. Educators must be prepared to mediate learning through ever-evolving digital tools. Media is rapidly taking over teaching as a students learn from gaming , open source knowledge, virtual scenarios, avatars and Second Life. Educators must prepare for facilitative roles that can harness these opportunities to be best student advantage’’. Jane Bailey Technology provides support to the solution of meaningful problems Technology acts as a cognitive support. Technology promotes collaboration as well as independent learning. (Goldman, S, Williams R. et al, 1999 )

32 Various technology programs that can be used to assist teachers to be innovative in teaching:
Stand Alone Program – Some programs are available as ‘’stand alone’’ software, videodisc, or CD-ROM media Programs Available on the Internet – There are several programs available on the Internet from where the school can choose a site. Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) Information Databases – Many forms of print- based materials are now available in electronic form. The entire set of the National Geographic magazine is now on CD-ROM. Encarta and Grollier provide access to vast information. These resources take advantage of hypermedia. HYPERMEDIA: the ability to jump in a nonlinear fashion to related information, whether that information is text, graphic video or sound.

33 Basic Laws on the Professionalization of Teaching In recognition of the vital role of a teachers in nation building and as an incentives to raise the morale of the teachers, it is imperative that they be considered as professionals and teaching be recognized as a profession. On January 1, 1997 President decree 1006, entitled Providing for the Professionalization of Teachers, Regulating their Practice in the Philippines, otherwise known as the Decree Professionalizing Teaching was proclaimed. With this presidential proclamation, teaching became professionalized in the Philippines. The proclamation of PD 1006 was premised on the following: 1.’’the institutions of the country have relied upon … teachers whose direct and continuing interaction with the young people and the children make then potent forces for the development of proper attitudes among the citizenry. 2.the tremendous growth of the teaching population, comprising in the civil service sector alone more than 300,000 teachers deployed all over the country; 3. to insure that in the immediately and urgency of teacher recruitment, qualitative requirements are not overlooked, it has become necessary to regulate the teaching profession; 4. teaching requires a number of years of collegiate study, it is the only curse that is not yet considered a profession and 5. In recognition of the vital role of teachers in nation- building and as an incentive to raise the morale of teachers, it is imperative that they be considered as profession’’ ( PD 1006).

34 Republic Act No An act to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the practice of teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a licensure examination for teachers and for other purposes. Section 1. Short title Section 2. Statement of Policy Section 3. Objectives Section 4. Definition of Terms Section 5. Creation and Composition of the Board Section 6. Duties and Function of the Board Section 7. Term of Office Section 8. Qualifications of Board of Members Section 9. Compensation of Board Section 10. Supervision of the Board and Custodian of its record Section 11. Secretariat and Support Services

35 Section 12. Removal of a Board Member
Section 13. Examination , Registration and Licensure Required Section 14. Scope of Examination Section 15. Qualification Requirement of Applicants Section 16. Report of the Results of the Examination Section 17.Issuance of Certificate and Professional License Section 18. Oath Before Practice Section 19. Periodic Merit Examination of Teachers Section 20. Failure to Pass the Merit Examination Section 21. Incentives Section 22. Integration of the Teaching Profession Section 23.Revocation of the Certificate of the Registration, Suspension from the Practice of the Teaching Profession and Cancellation of Temporary or Special Permit Section 24. Registration by Reciprocity Section 25. Roster of Professional Teachers Section 26. Registration and Exception

36 Section 27. Inhibition against the practice of teaching profession
Article IV: PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION Section 27. Inhibition against the practice of teaching profession Section 28. Penal Provisions Section 29. Appropriations Section 30. Implementation Guidelines Section 31. Transitory Provision Section 32. Separability Clause Section 33. Repealing Clause Section 34. Effectivity Clause REPUBLIC ACT No. 9293 Section 1.Section 15;(e) of Republic Act No is hereby amendment to read as follow Section 15. Qualifications Requirements of Applicants Section 2. Section 26 of the same act is hereby amendment to read as follows: Section 26. Registration and Exception Section 3. Section 31of the same Act is hereby amended to read as follows: Section 31.Transitory Provision Section 4. References to the Term Section 5. Separability Clause Section 6. Repealing Clause Section 7. Effectivity

37 Chapter V. “The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers” There is no more noble profession than teaching. A great teacher is a great artist, but his medium is not canvas, but the human soul. - Anonymous- PREAMBLE A professional teacher is the “ licensed professional who possesses dignity and reputation, with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence.. She/He adheres to, observes, and practices a set of ethnical and moral principles, standard, and values. ( Code of Ethnics of Professional Teachers,1997).

38 Resolution No. 435 Series of 1997 Pursuant to the provisions of paragraphs (e). Article II, of R.A No , otherwise known as the “Philippines Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994” and paragraph (a), Section 6,P.D No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopts and promulgates the following “ Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers”. Article I - Scope and Limitations Article II - The Teacher and the State Article III - The Teacher and the Community Article IV - The Teacher and the Profession Article V - The Teacher and the Teaching Community Article VI - The Teacher and the Higher Authorities in the Philippines Article VII - School Officials Teachers and Other Personnel Article VIII - The Teacher and the Learner Article IX - The Teacher and the Parents Article X - The Teacher and the Business Article XI - The Teacher as a Person Article XII - Disciplinary Action Article XIII - Effectivity

39 The 1987 Constitution Article XIV – Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
Education : The state shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. The state shall enhance the right of a teachers to professional advancement. The state shall establish, maintain and support complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs if the people and society… Science and Technology are essential for national development and progress The state shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self discipline, team work , and excellence for the development of healthy and alert citizenry.

40 Republic Act 4670 The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
I. DECLARATION OF POLICY - COVERAGE Section 1. Declaration of Policy. Section 2. Title – Definition. II. RECRUITMENT AND CAREER Section 3. Recruitment and Qualification. Section 4. Probationary Period. Section 5. Tenure of Office. Section 6. Consent for Transfer- Transportation Expenses. Section 7. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers. Section 8. Safeguards in Disciplinary Procedure. Section 9. Administrative Charges. Section 10. No Discrimination. Section 11. Married Teachers. Section 12. Academic Freedom.

41 Republic Act 4670 The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
III. HOURS OF WORK AND REMUNERATION Section 13. Teaching Hours. Section 14. Additional Compensations. Section 15. Criteria for Salaries. Section 16. Salary Scale. Section 17. Equality in Salary Scale. Section 18. Cost of Leaving Allowance. Section 19. Special Hardship Allowance. Section 20. Salaries to be paid in Legal Tender. Section 21. Deduction Prohibited. IV. HEALTH MEASURES AND INJURY BENEFITS Section 22. Medical Examination and Treatment. Section 23. Compensation for Injuries. V. LEAVE AND RETIREMENT BENEFITS Section 24. Study Leave. Section 25. Indefinite Leave. Section 26. Salary Increase Upon Retirement. VI. TEACHERS ORGANIZATION Section 27. Freedom to Organize. Section 28. Discrimination Against Teachers Prohibited. Section 29. National Teacher’s Organizations. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT Section 30. Rules and Regulations. Section 31. Budgetary Estimates. Section 32. Penal Provisions. Section 33. Repealing Clause. Section 34. Separability Clause. Section 35. This Act shall take effect upon approval.

42 BATAS PAMBANSA Blg. 232 – An Act of Providing for the Establishments and Maintenance of and Integrated System of Education Chapter 2. RIGHTS Section 8. Rights of Parents Section 9. Rights of Students in School Section 10.Rights of all School Personnel Section 11. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff. Section 12. Special Rights of School Administrators Section 13. Rights of School Chapter 3. DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS Section 14. Duties of Parents Section 15. Duties and Responsibilities of Students Section 16. Teachers’ Obligation Section 17. School Administrators Obligations Section 18. Obligations of Academic Non Teaching Personnel I. GENERAL PROVISONS Chapter 1. PRELIMINARY MATTERS Section 1 Title. The Act shall be known as the “ Education Act of 1982”. Section 2. Title – Coverage. This Act shall apply to and govern both formal and non formal systems in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational systems. Chapter 2. DECLARATION OF BASIC STATE POLICY AND OBJECTIVES Section 3.Declaration of Basic Policy Section 4. Declaration of Objectives II. THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY Chapter 1. PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS Section 5. Declaration of Policy and Objectives Section 6. Definition and Coverage Section 7. Community Participation

43 BATAS PAMBANSA Blg. 232 – An Act of Providing for the Establishments and Maintenance of and Integrated System of Education II. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Chapter 1. FORMAL EDUCATION Section 19. Declaration of Policy. The state recognizes that formal education or the school system, is society primary learning system, and therefore the main instrument for the achievement of the country’s educational goals and objectives Section 20. Definition. “Formal Education” refers to hierarchally structured and chronologically graded learning organized and provided the formal school system and for which certification is required in order for the learner to progress through the grades or move to higher levels. Formal education shall correspond the following levels. a. Elementary Level b. Secondary Level c. Tertiary Level Section 21. Objectives of Elementary Education Section 22. Objectives of Secondary Education Section 23. Objectives of Tertiary Education Chapter 2. NON FORMAL EDUCATION AND SPECIALIZED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES Section 24. Specialized Educational Service a. “ Work Education or “Practical Arts” b. “ Special Education” c. “ Non formal Education” Chapter 3. ESTABLISHMENTS OF SCHOOLS Section 25. Establishments of school Section 26. Definition of Terms. The terms used in the chapter defined as follows: a. Schools duly established institutions of learning or educational institutions. b. Public Schools are educational institutions established and administered by the government. c. Private Schools are educational institutions maintained and administered by private individual or groups.

44 BATAS PAMBANSA Blg. 232 – An Act of Providing for the Establishments and Maintenance of and Integrated System of Education Chapter 4. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS Section 30. Organization of School Section 31. Governing Board Section 32. Personnel Transactions Chapter 5. SCHOOL FINANCE AND ASSISTANCE Section 33. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State that the national Government shall contribute to the financial support of educational programs pursuant to the goals of education as declared in the Constitution. A. FUNDING OF PUBLIC SCHOOL Section 34. National Funds Section 35. Financial Aid and Assistance to Public Secondary Schools Section 36. Share of Local Government Section 37. Special Education Fund Section 38. Special Education Fund Section 39. Income from other Sources B. FUNDING OF PRIVATE SCHOOL Section 40. Funding of Private School Section 41. Government Assistance Section 42. Tuition and other School Fees Section 43. Income from other Sources Section 44. Institutional Funds C. INCENTIVES TO EDUCATION Section 45. Declaration of Policy. It is a policy of the state in pursuit of its national educational development goals to provide an incentive programs to encourage the participation of the community in the development of educational sector. Section 46. Relating to School Property Section 47. Relating to Gifts or Donation to School Section 48. Relating to Earnings from Established Scholarship Funds. Section 49. School Dispersal Program Section 50. Conversion to Educational Foundations.

45 BATAS PAMBANSA Blg. 232 – An Act of Providing for the Establishments and Maintenance of and Integrated System of Education D. ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS Section 51. Government Assistance to Students Section 52. Grant of Scholarship Pursuant to Existing Law Section 53. Assistance from the Private Sector


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