2Definition of a LeaderLeadership is about articulating visions, embodying values, and creating the environment within which things can be accomplished. - Richards & EngleWhen the effective leader is finished with his work, the people say it happened naturally. - Lao TseThe task of the leader is to get his people from where they are to where they have not been. - Henry Kissinger
3Characteristics of a Leader Leaders are willing to take risks.Leaders think in terms of do’s, not don’ts.Leaders see change as a constant, not an event.Leaders have a vision of the future.Leaders overcome adversity.Leaders value teamwork and bridge diversity.
4Function of the Leader Create a vision. Foster commitment. Affirm and articulate values.Inspire trust.Integrate diverse views.Appreciate dialog.Help others exert their influence.Foster commitment.Involve others in decision making.Listen and explain.Facilitate, energize and sustain action.Serve as role models.Maintain community support.
5Most Effective Leaders Know the interests of the members.Understand the hopes & limitations of community.Know concerns of members.Know how to motivate members.Without motivation, no action will take place.Know how to establish communication between members.Know how to conduct meetings.Know how to assess effectiveness.This can become a powerful motivating force for further action and commitment.
6LEADERSHIP vs. MANAGEMENT A person can be a leader without being a manager.A person can be a manager without being a leader.What are the difference between leadership and management?
7LEADERSHIP vs. MANAGEMENT The manager administers.The manager has a short-range view.The manager asks how and when.The manager has his/her eye on the bottom line.The manager accepts the status quo.The leader innovates.The leader has a long-range perspective.The leader asks what and why.The leader has his/her eye on the horizonThe leader challenges it.
8Shared LeadershipShared leadership is leadership that directs; it does not dictate.When shared leadership occurs, people approach problems in collaborative ways. They engage each other in defining:What is importantWhat is to be doneHow best to do it
9Characteristics of a Leader “A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Not so good when people obey and acclaim him. Worst when they despise him.”“Fail to honor the people, they fail to honor you. But of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say, ‘We did it ourselves.’” - Lao Tzu (Old Master) - Chinese Taoist Philosopher
10What do leaders do? They talk… They talk about what’s important. They talk about where we’re headed.They talk about what we stand for.They talk about falling in love with risk.And they get people motivated.What’s ImportantValues drive organizationsValues shapeAttitudes, Policies, Procedures, ActivitiesValues are always being demonstratedYou can’t hide them.Values will create your organization’s cultureYou have values.When working with the others in your group, be clear about what you value.Once people agree on a set of mutual values, your group’s objectives will be more easily defined.Where we’re headedVisions need to be:Simple, Easily understood, Clearly desirable by all, EnergizingGrabsFocusesArouses passionTransforms purpose into actionCompelsPulls people toward itCommits people to actionDrives a stake in the groundBecomes a rallying pointWhat we stand forIt needs to clearly separate you from all others.It is your external rallying cry.You need to have a Credo or a strong, crisp, clean statement of what you believe in and what you stand for.Falling in Love With RiskWhen there’s no risks taken, you can almost bet that it will be just another day with expected results.Those who do not learn to love risk, close the door to leadership.Through risk, we gain a perspective on what it means to be alive, to try new things, to challenge, to accept the possibility of failure as well as success.MotivatedA leader empowers people, pulls rather than pushes, attracts and energizes people to a vision of the future.A leader motivates by identification with the vision and helping the group to align with it.
11Lewin’s Leadership Study Conducted in 1939Used Schoolchildren in arts and crafts projectUsed three different leadership groupsLeader dictated everythingLeader allowed group inputLeader let group do as they pleaseStudy established three Leadership stylesAuthoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)Participative Leadership (Democratic)Delegative Leadership (Laissez-Faire)In 1939, a group of researchers led by psychologist Kurt Lewin conducted a study on school children participating in an arts and crafts project under the supervision of three different leadership styles. There were significant differences between the groups. Today, those initial three styles have been expanded into six different styles.
12Lewin’s Leadership Styles Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)Found decision-making was less creativeSometimes viewed as controlling, bossy and dictatorialParticipative Leadership (Democratic)Most effective styleLess productive, but contributions were higher qualityMore motivated and creativeDelegative Leadership (Laissez-Faire)Little cooperation among each other and unable to work independentlyEffective when members are highly qualified in an area of expertiseLeads to poorly defined roles and lack of motivationIn 1939, a group of researchers led by psychologist Kurt Lewin conducted a study on school children participating in an arts and crafts project under the supervision of three different leadership styles. There were significant differences between the groups. Today, those initial three styles have been expanded into six different styles.
13Taking Stock:What is your primary leadership style?
14Coercive Style Good or Bad? Now referred to by Goleman as “Commanding” “Do what I say”Manipulative and ForcefulEffective in a turnaround situation or in dealing with a problem employeeOverall, is counter productive in most situationsDaniel Goleman is one of the most renounced researcher in leadership styles
15Authoritative Style Good or Bad? Now referred to by Goleman as “Visionary”“Come with Me” or “Here is where we are going”Gives people freedom to choose from a range of options or to apply creativityOverall is very productive in all climates
16Affiliative Style Good or Bad? “People come first” Builds Team Harmony and increases overall moraleEmphasis on people and their feelings over accomplishing tasks & goalsOverall is good in most climates, rarely offers advice leaving many people perpetually confused or undirected
17Democratic Style Good or Bad? “What do you guys think we should do?” Can build flexibility and give people responsibilityWorks best when leader is uncertain about what direction to takeOverall good in most climates, but often leads to a leaderless organization
18Pacesetting Style Good or Bad? “Follow Me!” Sets high performance standardsIs effective with the self-motivated and competentLeaves others overwhelmed and scaredOverall not good in any climate, should be used sparingly
19Coaching Style Good or Bad? “Let me show you how” A focus on conversations—helps those willing to or even desiring changeLittle or no focus on task related accomplishmentsOverall good, but not seen as a “bottom-line” approach
20Steps to Becoming a L-E-A-D-E-R ListenDon’t assume - askEnthusiasticBe positive and optimisticActionBe creative and take risksDependabilityBe ethical and with communities best interest at heartEducatedUnderstand dynamics of community and lead by exampleResultsGetting positive things accomplishedListenSpeaking out and taking a stand is one thing, but keeping an open ear is essential. Don’t assume what citizens want. Go out and talk with all organization members.EnthusiasticIf you are passionate about local issues, the enthusiasm will radiate to the rest of the community. A positive attitude and optimism will also go a long way to make the task both fun and effective.ActionGoals are important, but providing a comprehensive plan of action that explains how to reach those goals is even more so. Be creative and take risks in order to find new ways of accomplishing those goals.DependabilityThe community should be able to trust its leaders to operate ethically and with their best interests at heart.EducatedA leader should have a good understanding of the dynamics of the community, and how its members operate. A leader should also lead by example.ResultsThe motivation to be a leader should not be for an impressive resume or to satisfy the urge for attention – it should be about getting something positive done. There are true leaders, and then there are people who grab a leadership position as a stepping stone in their career.
21Commonality of Great Leaders Magnitude of their impactDuration of their impactThe number of followersMagnitude – great leaders will be judged by the vigor and growth of their teachings and the amount of influence that has on other leadersDuration – has the work and teaching of their leadership survived the test of time.Followers - how many have been impacted by their teachings and leadership and how long will their message influence the behavior of significant numbers of people.