# Course Outline 1. Chapter 1: Signals and Amplifiers

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Course Outline 1. Chapter 1: Signals and Amplifiers
2. Chapter 3: Semiconductors 3. Chapter 4: Diodes 4. Chapter 5: MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) 5. Chapter 6: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 6. Chapter 2 (optional): Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 4: Diodes Part II

Figure 4.20: Block diagram of a dc power supply
4.5 Rectifier Circuits Figure 4.20: Block diagram of a dc power supply The primary application of diode is the rectifier – Electrical device which converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) One important application of rectifier is dc power supply.

step #1: increase / decrease rms magnitude of AC wave via power transformer
step #2: convert full-wave AC to half-wave DC (still time-varying and periodic) step #3: employ low-pass filter to reduce wave amplitude by > 90% step #4: employ voltage regulator to eliminate ripple step #5: supply dc load

4.5.1 The Half-Wave Rectifier
Half-wave rectifier – utilizes only alternate half-cycles of the input sinusoid Constant voltage drop model is employed.

4.5.1 The Half-Wave Rectifier
Small inputs? Regardless of the model employed, one should note that the rectifier will not operate properly when input voltage is small (< 1V) Those cases require a precision rectifier (diode with op amps).

4.5.2 Full-Wave Rectifier Center-tapping of the transformer, allowing “reversal” of certain currents…

Full-Wave Rectifier When instantaneous source voltage is positive, D1 conducts while D2 blocks…

4.5.2 Full-Wave Rectifier when instantaneous source voltage is negative, D2 conducts while D1 blocks

Center-tapped Transformer

4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier An alternative implementation of the full-wave rectifier is bridge rectifier Does not require center-tapped transformer Four diodes instead of two

4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier when instantaneous source voltage is positive, D1 and D2 conduct while D3 and D4 block

4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier when instantaneous source voltage is negative, D3 and D4 conduct while D1 and D2 block

4.5.4. The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor
Why is this example unrealistic? Because for any practical application, the converter would supply a load (which in turn provides a path for capacitor discharging)

4.5.4. The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor

4.5.4. The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor

4.5.4. The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor
Precision rectifier – is a device which facilitates rectification of low-voltage input waveforms How?

4.6: Limiting and Clamping Circuits
Q: What is a limiter or clamping circuit? A: One which limits voltage output.

single limiters employ one diode
double limiters employ two diodes of opposite polarity linear range may be controlled via string of diodes and dc sources zener diodes may be used to implement soft limiting

soft vs. hard limiter 4.6: Soft vs Hard limiter
Q: How are limiter circuits applied? A: Signal processing, used to prevent breakdown of transistors within various devices. Why use soft?

4.6.2 The Clamped Capacitor or DC Restorer
Q: What is a DC restorer? A: Circuit which provides the dc component of an AC without DC value. Q: Why is this ability important? A: 1) Average value of the output is effective way to measure duty cycle 2) Duty cycle is modulated to carry digital data (PWM): use DC restorer followed by RC low pass filter

Q: What is a voltage doubler?
4.6.3 The Voltage Doubler dc restorer peak rectifier Q: What is a voltage doubler? A: One which multiplies the amplitude of a wave or signal by two. How?

4.7 Special Diodes Schottky-Barrier Diode or Schottky Diode
metal and moderately doped semiconductor junction current flows from metal to semiconductor current is conducted by majority carriers: can switch it on and off faster than p-n junction forward voltage drop is lower than p-n junction ( V)

reverse-biased p-n junction
4.7 Special Diodes Varactors reverse-biased p-n junction junction capacitance is a function of reverse bias voltage how? voltage variable capacitor tuning of receivers, Phase locked loops Anode Cathode

4.7 Special Diodes Photodiodes reverse-biased p-n junction
expose to light: covalent bonds break, electron-hole pairs are created free electrons sweep to n side and holes to p side reverse current is created photocurrent is proportational to intensity of incident light convert light into electric signal applications: CD-ROM, fiber-optic what happens when you don't reverse bias the photodiode and expose it to light? Anode Cathode Po...P2= light levels

4.7 Special Diodes LEDs convert forward current into light
forward bias region: when minority carriers diffuse into p and n sides, they recombine with majority carriers, e.g. electrons with holes. recombination: emission of light special semiconductor material: direct band-gap known spectra of light when electrons leave orbit emitted light is proportional to number of recombinations which is proportional to the forward current Anode Cathode