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Dr Kate Hannah HM Inspectors, Education Scotland

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1 Dr Kate Hannah HM Inspectors, Education Scotland
Developments in inclusive education in Scotland

2 The role of the Inclusion Team is to provide leadership in reducing inequity in educational outcomes for all learners by developing, promoting and supporting more effective and innovative, inclusive practices, influencing national policy and contributing to the fulfilment of statutory duties in relation to the following:

3 Role of the inclusion team
Create a positive learning environment Guidance on universal and targeted support World class curriculum for special schools and units We do this by: Providing independent evaluation Supporting and promoting improvements in Building the capacity of education providers to improve their performance Sharing effective inclusive practices nationally and internationally. Creating positive learning environments, based on shared values, where all learners are included, engaged and involved in all aspects of the ethos and life of the school community by: providing universal support and guidance for learners that supports them in planning next steps and for choices and changes. Taking account of the needs of diverse learners and providing targeted support by: • Identifying and addressing barriers to learning

4 How do people around the world see Scotland?
O wad some Power the giftie gie us To see oursels as ithers see us! ‘To a Louse’ Robert Burns


6 Scotland Scotland is a beautiful, scenic and mysterious country


8 Contrasting images of Scotland
But there is another Scotland where YP grow up in areas of multiple deprivation and poverty and where drug and alcohol abuse and domestic violence impact of life chances and educational achievement.

9 What I am going to talk about….
The Scottish context: Education Scotland National framework for inclusion: developments in inclusive education

10 The Scottish Context for inclusion: a national approach

11 UK Government 32 Local Councils Scottish Parliament
Who is in control in Scottish education? Scotland falls under the jurisdiction of the UK Government. But since 1999 we have re-established our own parliament. Some functions are totally devolved to the Scottish parliament – one of these is education. But we also divide Scotland up into 32 geographic areas. Each area has its own local council. Each local council employs education specialists specifically to support education in their area. In fact, local councils have a statutory obligation to support, develop and improve education in their areas.

12 Scotland Performs website

13 Scotland in context 671,218 children and young people in publicly funded schools 118,034 with additional support needs 19.5% have SEN About 98% of young people in mainstream classes over 80% of the time 2,606 schools 51,400 teachers

14 What’s the problem? Children in care perform notably less well than their peers Many don’t receive the help they need to lead successful lives Children under a compulsory supervision order at home attain worst of all Considerable unmet health needs Councils do not always have clear strategies and plans We’ve also known for some time that looked after children and those in residential care have significantly poorer educational outcomes than other children. We know that looked after children perform notably less well than their peers, and that children who are under a compulsory supervision order at home attain worst of all. These children are also ten times more likely than their peers to be excluded from school. There is another issue here regarding the way in which the media portray such young people

15 Missing out: a national issue
We also are aware of messages from international research, including recent OECD reports, regarding the ‘achievement gap’ between the highest and lowest attaining pupils. This diagram comes from the OECD review, “Quality and Equity of Schooling in Scotland” (2007). It clearly shows that Scotland has a bigger achievement gap than many of our comparator nations and this is a continuing cause for concern. OECD identify a strong linear relationship between attainment and socio-economic status as well as impact of social area deprivation.

16 Missing out: a national issue
Again, we can see that the United Kingdom performs poorly, finding itself in the bottom third of the rankings for five of the six dimensions reviewed for child wellbeing.

17 What are we doing about it?
Developing a National Curriculum for Excellence framework where all learners in Scotland are entitled to a broad general education and a senior phase from years National wellbeing indicators Strong focus on partnership working between education, health and social services backed by legislation. Reconceptualised SENs as Additional Support Needs backed by new legislation. Framework supported by new Scottish Government Agency Education Scotland and 7 teacher education universities

18 The vision Learners in Scotland will progress in one of the most effective education systems in the world, renowned for the ability of national and local partners to work flexibly together to achieve high quality and equitable outcomes for all Our vision is that: Learners in Scotland will progress in one of the most effective education systems in the world, renowned for the ability of national and local partners to work flexibly together to achieve high quality and equitable outcomes for all. Our vision sets a high level of ambition and places the learner at the core of everything we do. It envisages a system in which all learners progress through personalised learner journeys which equip them with the skills they need to thrive in their chosen careers and in society at large. Our vision is for education in Scotland to be globally renowned for its success, widely acknowledged as being one of the best education systems in the world. Our vision has a strong focus on raising standards, yes, but also on improving outcomes in ways which seek to eliminate the inequity which currently exists amongst learners from different background and from particular vulnerable groups. Our vision reflects our commitment to playing a lead role in promoting strong partnership working amongst the key partners supporting and delivering education in Scotland. We believe our aspirations for improvement are shared by all of our key partners.

19 Creating a virtuous cycle of improvement
Nationally shared aims and goals applied and developed flexibly in local contexts Core principles, experiences and expected outcomes BETTER LEARNING knowledge spread effectively to practitioners impact evaluated at multiple levels knowledge drawn out about ‘what works’ Pulling all the strands of policy and strategy together can be summarised as one in which we are seeking to build and support a learning system. A learning system is one in which the strong collective engagement of a highly professional workforce creates a virtuous cycle of evidence-based improvements in practice. This virtuous cycle can drive improvement in any or all sectors of education. Our learning system has learners at the centre and relies on a high-quality professional workforce to make it work. To function at its best it: Ensures practitioners have broad, enabling national guidance with clear expected outcomes Encourages local interpretation and application in practice, with incentives for well-managed innovation Ensures evaluation takes place at appropriate levels, ranging from internal to external and local to national Brings in external evidence from high-quality research Is vigorous in identifying and sharing evidence about what works in ways which are wel suited to informing decision-making by practitioenrs at the front line external research and intelligence

20 Our mission – working with our partners
To provide a national infrastructure which makes this virtuous cycle a reality… We will provide the best blend of national support and challenge to inspire and secure continuous improvement in experiences and opportunities for all learners in Scotland. We developed this mission statement to highlight the distinctive role that we will play in driving the Scottish approach to educational improvement, in our role as Scotland’s key national improvement agency for education. We at Education Scotland are in a unique position of being able to plan a coherent and balanced blend of activities to support improvement in Scottish education. This includes support and challenge activities.

21 Achieving the vision will mean…
Educational outcomes for all learners are improving Inequity in educational outcomes is eradicated Public confidence in education is high If we achieve our vision, it will mean: That educational outcomes for all learners are improving That inequity in educational outcomes is eradicated That public confidence in education is high

22 So what are the key approaches in our national strategy which will help us to achieve this vision?

23 Scottish Curriculum for Excellence
A national framework where all children and young people in Scotland are entitled to a broad general education and a senior phase from 3-18 years


25 successful learners four capacities attributes and capabilities
with enthusiasm and motivation for learning determination to reach high standards of achievement openness to new thinking and ideas and able to use literacy, communication and numeracy skills use technology for learning think creatively and independently learn independently and as part of a group make reasoned evaluations link and apply different kinds of learning in new situations confident individuals with self respect a sense of physical, mental and emotional wellbeing secure values and beliefs ambition and able to relate to others and manage themselves pursue a healthy and active lifestyle be self aware develop and communicate their own beliefs and view of the world live as independently as they can assess risk and take informed decisions achieve success in different areas of activity To enable all young people to become four capacities attributes and capabilities responsible citizens with respect for others commitment to participate responsibly in political, economic, social and cultural life and able to develop knowledge and understanding of the world and Scotland’s place in it understand different beliefs and cultures make informed choices and decisions evaluate environmental, scientific and technological issues develop informed, ethical views of complex issues effective contributors with an enterprising attitude resilience self-reliance and able to communicate in different ways and in different settings work in partnership and in teams take the initiative and lead apply critical thinking in new contexts create and develop solve problems These are the four national outcomes that we want this curriculum to deliver for all Scotland’s children and young people regardless of ability and social background. In each case the capacity is expanded into ‘attributes’ and ‘capabilities’: it is our task to design a curriculum which will enable each child to develop these attributes and capabilities. You see here the beginning of a winnowing tool for the review of the curriculum – any activity which is not clearly directed to achieving these aims does not earn its keep and should be removed. The review document then explores the ethos and teaching and learning methodologies which will be needed if these outcomes are to be achieved (for example, ) It then moves on to define updated principles for the design of the curriculum. Many of these are familiar but the principles begin with challenge and enjoyment – fully evidence-based – and depth has greater prominence than at present. Give delegates one of the four areas to think of ways in which ML lessons can develop these underlying capacities

26 It has a schematic guide which incorporates all of the key features of the curriculum

27 Curriculum for Excellence ‘contexts for learning’
ethos and life of school as a community curriculum areas and subjects interdisciplinary learning opportunities for personal achievement The curriculum framework and the qualifications system provides a range of opportunities to meet the needs of all

28 Getting it Right for Every Child
The GIRFEC framework: National wellbeing indicators with a strong focus on partnership working between education, health and social services backed by legislation.

29 Getting it right for every child GIRFEC framework
The wellbeing wheel: 8 wellbeing indicators Safe Healthy Achieving Nurtured Active Respected Responsible Included (SHANARRI) Now embedded in our universal support systems in most schools and an important part of the reviews of children’s progress including those with SEN. Children and young people regularly assess themselves against the wellbeing indicators which are also integrated within the four educational capacities as you see on the wheel. Also more importantly the GIRFEC framework is underpinned by legislation through the Children and Young People’s Act

30 GIRFEC and The Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014
Increase free early learning and childcare from 475 hours a year to a minimum of 600 hours for 3 and 4 year olds, and vulnerable 2 year olds All children and young people from birth to their 18th birthday or beyond if they remain in school, have access to a Named Person; Place a definition of wellbeing in legislation; and Ensure all children and young people from birth to their 18th birthday or beyond if they remain in school, have access to a Named Person The legislation is a universal support mechanism designed to support and drive the national policy in inclusion and improve outcomes significantly for all Scotland’s young people through earlier intervention

31 ‘Additional Support Needs’
New broader concept of ‘Additional Support Needs’ Additional support needs can arise from any factor which causes a barrier to learning whether that factor relates to Social emotional and behavioural factors The learning environment Family circumstances Disability or health need Underpinned by Education (Additional Support for Learning (Scotland) Act 2009 (amended)

32 National framework for inclusion 2009
Revised in 2014, developed by the 7 universities offering teacher training in Scotland aiming to deliver better classroom support for pupils with additional support needs Aims to ensure better classroom support for children with additional support needs Government and Teacher Educators educators are providing a framework for student teachers and teachers including advance professional studies includes: values and beliefs for inclusion Professional knowledge Skills and abilities for inclusion

33 Destinations of students with ASN

34 What has been the impact of this national framework for inclusion?
There is evidence in official statistics to show that in relation to attendance and attainment the trend in Scotland is beginning to move in the right direction, even if the gap between looked-after children and their non-looked-after peers is still unacceptably large. In Scotland, children living in out of home care, looked after by residential, foster and kinship carers, now have school attendance which is as good as that achieved by children who are not looked after. Almost half of this sub-set of looked-after children now leaves school with a qualification in both mathematics and English, the proportion having increased from 41% to 46% of the cohort in just two years. Addressing low attainment of children in public care: The Scottish experience, Graham Connelly and Judith Furnivall, Celsis, 2011

35 Use this for a task defining the difference between equality and equity

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