Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Warm-Up Define: Migration Mobility Immigration Emigration

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up Define: Migration Mobility Immigration Emigration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-Up Define: Migration Mobility Immigration Emigration
Net Migration Objectives: Describe the difference between international and internal migration. Identify the principal sources of immigrants during the three main eras of U.S. migration.

2 APHG Chapter 3 - Migration
Human Migration llhammon Spring 2014

3 Migration Mobility is most generalized term that refers to all types of movements Journeying each day to work or school Weekly visits to local shops Annual trips to visit relatives who live in a different state Short-term and repetitive acts of mobility are referred to as circulation. Ex. College students moving to college each fall and returning home each spring © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Migration A type of mobility
Migration is a permanent move to a new location Migration = relocation diffusion Emigration – number of people leaving a geographic area Immigration – is the number of people entering a geographic area Net migration is the difference between the number of people entering a geographic area (immigrants) and those leaving (emigrants) International Migration: 145 million people lived outside their native countries in the mid – 1990’s, increasing by 2 – 4 million each year

5 Ravenstein’s Law Outline
The distance migrants typically move. The reasons migrants move. The characteristics of migrants.

6 Distance of Migration Ravenstein’s laws for the distance that migrants typically move Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country. Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity. 19th Century geographer E. G. Ravenstein wrote a series of “laws” about the tendencies of migrants. At the time, the word, law, was known to mean theory. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Ravenstein’s Migration Laws
1. Net migration accounts to a fraction of the gross migration between two places Every migration flow generates a return migration, so the actual migration is the volume of the original flow minus that of the return flow 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Families are less likely to make international moves that young adults.

8 Gravity Model The number of migrants declines as the distance they must travel increases. The gravity model predicts migration on the basis of the size of population in the respective places and the distance between them. It states that migration is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them. Distance Decay Model – The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

9 Warm-Up Provide an example of International migration.
Provide an example of Intraregional migration. Objectives: 3.2.1: Describe the history of interregional migration in the United States. 3.2.2: Describe interregional migration in Russia and Canada. 3.2.3: Describe interregional migration in Canada, China, and Brazil. 3.2.4: Explain differences among the three forms of intraregional migration.

10 Review: Gravity Model Explained Using Shopping Centers
Interaction decisions are not based on distance or cost considerations. Shopping centers attract customers from a wide radius because of their variety of goods and sheer size. (Walmart) Big things have a stronger “pull” and things close together have stronger mutual attraction than objects further apart. (Social Gravity)


12 Distance Decay Part 2 Decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its origin. Interaction decreases (ex. Long distance friends/relationships)

13 Distance of Migration Migration can be divided into two categories.
International Migration- permanent move from one country to another Voluntary Forced Internal Migration- permanent move within the same country Interregional - one region of a country to another. Intraregional – within a region International Migration- Voluntary international migration could be motivated by perceived economic or quality of life improvement. Forced international migration is motivated by political or environmental factors. Internal Migration- Interregional – movement from one region to another. i.e. rural to urban. Intraregional- movement within a region. i.e. central city to a newer suburban center. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 FIGURE 3.4 INTERNATIONAL AND INTERNAL MIGRATION Mexico has international migration into the country from Central America and out of the country to the United States. Mexico also has internal migration, especially interregional migration to states near the U.S. border and intraregional migration into Mexico City. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 International Migration Patterns
Approximately 9 percent of the world’s people are international migrants. Global pattern reflects migration tendencies from developing countries to developed countries. Net Out-Migration Asia, Latin America, and Africa Net In-Migration North America, Europe, and Oceania © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Where Are Migrants Distributed?
Global migration patterns Regions with Net Out - Migration: Asia, Africa, and Latin America Regions with Net In - Migration: North America, Europe, and Oceania The U.S. has the largest foreign-born population

17 Net Migration by Country
Net migration per 1,000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.

18 Global Migration Patterns
The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.

19 FIGURE 3-6 GLOBAL MIGRATION PATTERNS The width of the arrows shows the amount of net migration between regions of the world. Countries with net in-migration are in red, and those with net outmigration are in blue. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 U.S. Immigration Patterns
U.S. has more foreign-born residents than any other country: approximately 43 million as of 2010—growing by 1 million annually. Three main eras of immigration in the U.S. Colonial settlement in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Mass European immigration in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries Asian and Latin American integration in the late Twentieth and early twenty-first centuries First era was marked by immigration from Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. Most from Africa were forced to migrate as slaves. In the beginning of the second era, most migrants came from northern and western Europe. By the turn of the 20th Century, most migrants came from southern and eastern Europe. Third era marked a shift in the sending continents. Asia and Latin America were primary places of migrant origins. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Migration to U.S., by region of origin
Most migrants to the U.S. were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.

FIGURE 3-8 DESTINATION OF IMMIGRANTS BY U.S. STATE California, New York, Florida, and Texas are the leading destinations for immigrants. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Center of Population in the U.S.
The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.

24 Where Are Migrants Distributed?
U.S. Migration Patterns Colonial Immigration from England and Africa Immigration to the American colonies and the newly independent United States came from two sources: Europe and Africa. Most of the Africans were forced to migrate to the United States as slaves, whereas most Europeans were voluntary migrants – although harsh economic conditions and persecution in Europe blurred the distinction between forced and voluntary migration for many Europeans.

25 Regional Origins of Immigrants to the United States, Selected Years
Source: Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1998 Statistical Yearbook

26 “Looking Backward”: Source –Puck Magazine, January 11, 1893; Joseph Keppler

27 U.S. Migration Patterns Recent Immigration from Less Developed Countries Immigration to the United States dropped in the 1930’s and 1940’s, during the Great Depression and World War II. Immigration increased steadily during the 50’s – 80’s and 1990’s to historically high levels. Asia was the leading source of immigrants between the late 1970’s and the late 1980’s until overtaken by Latin America. About 2 million Latin Americans migrated to the United States 1820 – 1960, about 11 million between 1960 – The unusually large number of immigrants from Latin America resulted from the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, which issued visas to several hundred thousand who had entered the United States in previous years without legal documents.

28 Migration from Asia to the U.S.
Migration in The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

29 Migration from Latin America to the U.S.
Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.

30 Key Issue 2: Where do people migrate within a country?
Interregional migration Intraregional migration

31 Where Do People Migrate within a Country?
Interregional Migration Perceived economic betterment typically compels individuals to make interregional migrations. Historically- enticement of abundant available land on the American Frontier. Presently- most jobs, especially in services, are clustered in urban areas. Westward expansion contributed to a shift in the center of population. (Chain Migration) “Center of population gravity” Center of population gravity refers to the country’s center of population, as calculated by the U.S. Census Bureau. Conceptually, if the United States were a flat plane placed on top of a pin, and each individual weighed the same, the population center would be the point where the population distribution causes the flat plane to balance on the pin. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 U.S. Interregional Migration
Loup Valley, Nebraska 1886

33 American Settlement Early Settlement in the Interior –
By 1830 the center of population moved west of West Virginia. After 1830 the population center moved west more rapidly, to just west of Cincinnati, Ohio, in The population center shifted west rapidly because most western pioneers during the mid-nineteenth century passed through the interior of the country on their way to California. Settlement of the Great Plains – The United States population center continued to migrate westward at a much slower pace after In part because large migration to the East Coast… offset some of the migration to the U.S. West. The westward movement of the U.S. population center also slowed after 1880 because people began to fill in the area between the 98th meridian and California.


FIGURE 3-9 CHANGING CENTER OF U.S. POPULATION The population center is the average location of everyone in the country, the “center of population gravity.” If the United States were a flat plane placed on top of a pin, and each individual weighed the same, the population center would be the point where the population distribution causes the flat plane to balance on the head of a pin. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 American Settlement Between 1950 and 1980 the population center moved west faster. In 1980 the population center jumped west of the Mississippi River. Recent Growth of the South – During the 1990’s, for the first time more Americans migrated out of the West than to the West. The population center has moved southward since Americans are immigrating to the South primarily for jobs. People also are migrating to the South for environmental reasons.

37 Interregional Migration in the U.S.
93 Northeast 56 118 56 Midwest 125 77 West 199 299 176 244 228 South 300 2007 Figures shown in thousands

38 Migration between Regions in Large Countries
World’s five largest countries in land area are Russia, Canada, China, the U.S., and Brazil. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 Migration between Regions and Other Countries
Russia – Soviet policy encouraged factory construction near raw materials rather than near existing population concentrations. The collapse of the Soviet Union ended policies that encouraged interregional migration. Brazil – Most Brazilians live in large cities on the Atlantic coast. To increase the attractiveness to the interior, the government moved its capital in 1960 from Rio to Brasilia. Offered incentives for people to move into the interior. Indonesia – Since 1969 the government has paid for the migration of more than 5 million people, primarily from the island of Java, to less populated islands.

40 FIGURE 3-11 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION: RUSSIA Russia’s population is clustered in the west of the country, nearest to Europe. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Migration between Regions in Other Countries
Europe – Throughout Western Europe … the regions with net migration are also the ones with the highest per capita income. India – Indians require a permit to migrate to the State of Assam. The restrictions, which date from the British rule, are designed to protect the ethnic identity of Assamese. There is restricted migration in India.

42 Migration in Europe

43 Emigration from China Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.

44 Migration of Vietnamese Boat People
Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.

45 Migration between Regions in Large Countries
Canada: Shares a similar east to west interregional migration pattern with the U.S. Three westernmost provinces are destinations for interregional migrants. China: Nearly 100 million people have emigrated from rural interior to large urban areas along east coast where manufacturing is prevalent. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 FIGURE 3-17 INTERREGIONAL MIGRATION: CHINA Migrants are heading eastward towards the major cities.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Why Do People Migrate within a Country?
Two main types of internal migration are interregional and intraregional. Interregional migration (from region to region) is between rural and urban areas Intraregional migration (within a region) is from older cities to suburbs Center of Population – population center is the average location of everyone in the country “center of population gravity.” Careful of scale! Intraregional can be based on scale. You could be looking at an international scale or internal scale.

48 Intraregional Migration
Since Industrial Revolution began in Europe in nineteenth century, a global trend for individuals to migrate from rural to urban areas Percentage of urbanized population in U.S. 1800: 5 percent 1920: 50 percent 2010: 80 percent Motivated by economic advancement Rural push factors include declining opportunities in agriculture. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 Migration Trends: Step Migrations
Migration from Rural to Urban Areas Urbanization began with the industrial development. Migration from rural to urban areas has grown in recent years in the less developed countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. (primary reason = economic migration) Migration from Urban to Suburban Areas In more developed countries , most intraregional migration is from central cities out to suburbs (primary reason = suburban lifestyle) Migration from Metropolitan to Nonmetropolitan Areas More developed countries of North America and Western Europe are witnessed a new trend. More people immigrated into rural areas than emigrated out of them. Net migration from urban to rural areas is called counterurbanization.

50 Intraregional Migration
Developed countries experienced a new migration trend during the late twentieth century when rural areas were characterized by net in-migration. Net migration from urban to rural areas is called counterurbanization. Counterurbanization most prevalent in places rich with natural amenities Rocky Mountain States (Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming) Growing populations in suburbia contributed to counterurbanization, but many people migrated from cities to rural places. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 Intraregional Migration
Most intraregional migration in developed countries is from cities out to surrounding suburbs. Motivated not by economic advancement but by a desired lifestyle Additional privacy associated with single-family detached houses Garages and driveways offer parking at no additional fee Often superior suburban schools © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 Intraregional Migration in the U.S.
2007 Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. During the 1990s, the largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.

53 Key Issue 3

54 Why Do People Migrate? People decide to migrate because of a combination of two factors. Push factors induce people to move out of their present location. Pull factors induce people to move into a new location. Three major types of push and pull factors Political Environmental Economic Ravenstein’s laws help geographers make generalizations about where and how far people move. Most people migrate for economic reasons. Political and environmental also induce migration but less often. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 Reasons for Migrating Political factors can be especially compelling push factors, forcing people to migrate from a country. United Nations High Commissions for Refugees recognizes three groups of forced political migrants. A refugee has been forced to migrate to avoid a potential threat to his or her life, and he or she cannot return for fear of persecution. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Refugee - United Nations Convention 1977
A refugee is a person who… owing well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, is outside of the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself to the protection of that country. - United Nations Convention 1977

57 Reasons for Migrating An internally displaced person (IDP) is similar to a refugee, but he or she has not migrated across an international border. An asylum seeker is someone who has migrated to another country in hope of being recognized as a refugee. Largest number of refugees in 2010 was forced to migrate from Afghanistan and Iraq because of war. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Refugees: Sources and destinations
Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees.

59 FIGURE 3-25 POLITICAL FACTORS: REFUGEES AND IDPS The largest numbers of refugees originated in Southwest Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Why Do People Migrate? Political conditions cont. – the lure of freedom Ex. - The election of democratic governments in Eastern Europe during 1990’s, Western Europe’s political pull has disappeared the migration factor. Other examples?

61 Reasons for Migrating Environmental factors can prompt migration from hazardous environments or pull migrants to attractive regions. Environmental Pull Factors Mountains Seasides Warm Climates Environmental Push Factors Water: most common environmental threat Flood Drought Hundreds of thousands have been forced to move from the Sahel region of northern Africa because of drought conditions. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 Reasons for Migrating Most people migrate for economic reasons.
Push factor: migrate away from places with few jobs Pull factor: migrate to places where jobs seem to be available U.S. and Canada have been prominent destinations for economic migrants. Historically individuals migrated from Europe. More recently Latin America and Asia are primary senders. Relative attractiveness of a region can shift with economic change. Migration rates have decreased since the onset of the 2008 recession in the U.S. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 Migrant and Guest Workers
Immigrants from poorer countries are allowed to immigrant temporarily to obtain jobs. Seasonal China and Southwest Asia

64 Brain Drain Countries give preference to skilled workers, U.S. immigration policy contributes to a brain drain, which is a large – scale emigration by talented people. Nearly one-fourth of all legal immigrants to the United States have attended graduate school, compared to less than one-tenth of native – born Americans.

65 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?
Intervening obstacles, which hinder migration, can be categorized into two types. Environmental Feature- i.e., mountain, ocean, or distance Political Feature- i.e., countries require proper documentation to leave one country and gain entry in another Before the advancements in transportation, environmental features were more hindering than political features. More recently, political features are now more hindering. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

66 Key Issue 4 Extra Slides

67 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Characteristics of Migrants More males migrated to the U.S. during the nineteenth century and most of the twentieth century. Gender reversed in 1990s when women constituted about 55 percent of U.S. immigrants. Most likely a reflection of the changing role of women in Mexican society. About 40 percent of immigrants in U.S. are young adults between the ages of 25 and 39. Recent immigrants to the U.S. tend to be less educated than U.S. citizens. Mexican women often married at a young age and remained in the village to raise children. More recently, researchers are seeing that many of them are crossing into the U.S. to be reunited with husbands or brother, but also a growing number are seeking jobs. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

68 Controlling Migration
Countries have adopted selective immigration policies. Preference shown for specific employment placement and family reunification Passing of the Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act in 1924 by the U.S. Congress marked the end of unrestricted immigration to the U.S. The global quota was set to 700,000 in 1990. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 Controlling Migration
More seek admission to the U.S. than is permitted by the quotas, thus preferences are shown toward: Family Reunification About ¾ of immigrants Skilled Workers Approximately ¼ of immigrants Sending countries alleged preference for skilled workers contributes to brain drain- a term for the disproportionate amount of highly skilled and intelligent citizens migrating away from sending countries. Diversity A few immigrants admitted, because their sending country historically has sent very few migrants Quotas do not apply to refugees. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

70 Characteristics of Migrants
Most long distance migrants are Males - traditionally outnumber females In the U.S. today, 55% of immigrants = female adult individuals families with children are less common Family status In the U.S. today, about 40% of immigrants = young adults, aged 25-39

71 Where are Migrants Distributed?
Impact of immigration on the United States Legacy of European migration Europe’s demographic transition Stage 2 growth pushed Europeans out 65 million Europeans emigrate Diffusion of European culture

72 Where Are Migrants Distributed?
Impact of immigration on the United States Unauthorized immigration 2008 = estimated 11.9 million unauthorized/undocumented immigrants About 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor force Around 59 percent are undocumented immigrants from Mexico

73 Undocumented Immigration
1 million & above 10, ,999 100,000 – 999,999 Below 10,000

74 Undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona
The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.

75 Destinations of Immigrants within the United States
Impact of immigration on the United States Destinations California = one-fifth of all immigrants and one-fourth of undocumented immigrants New York = one-sixth of all immigrants Immigrants are not distributed uniformly through the United States. Chain Migration is the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there. Examples ???

76 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations
California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida Texas, and Illinois.

77 What Are The Obstacles To Migration?
What are some physical intervening obstacles? Mountains Water Other Examples? Distance to destination – Actual vs. Friction (ex. Germany, Israel) Immigration policies of host countries U.S. quota laws - global quota of 620,000, with no more than 7% from one country (The Quota Act – 1921; The National Origins Act 1924) Temporary migration for work - guest workers (Europe, Middle East) Time-contract workers – Asia Economic migrants or refugees? – Cuba, Haiti, Vietnam Cultural problems faced while living in host countries U.S. attitudes to immigrants Attitudes to guest workers

78 Guest Workers in Europe
Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.

79 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country?
Migration between regions of a country U.S. settlement patterns Colonial settlement Early settlement in the interior (early 1800s) California Gold Rush in the 1840s Great Plains settlement Recent growth of the South

80 Interregional Migration in the U.S.
500 Northeast 250 800 400 Midwest 750 300 West 600 1,600 1,000 1,000 1,600 South 1,500 1995 Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2007

81 The Polish plumber “emblematic reaction to anti-immigrant sentiment”
In 2005, French nationalists complained in the press that Polish plumbers were taking French jobs. (In fact, there was a significant shortage of plumbers in France) The “Polish Plumber” quickly became shorthand across Europe for issues related to immigration and jobs. Poland responded by featuring on its tourism posters a “hunky” male model posing as a plumber and saying seductively, “I’m staying in Poland; won’t you come over?”

82 Net in-migration and Net out-migration
Canada Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Russia 2.0 and above Mexico Canada Gulf of Mexico 0.00 Rocky Mtns region net in-migration (rural counties) Great Plains region net out-migration (rural counties) 2.0 and above U.S net migration by county, 2007.

83 Up Next: Exam on Chapters 1 – 3.
Then, Folk and Popular Culture Read Chapter 4

84 Controlling Migration
Countries have adopted selective immigration policies. Preference shown for specific employment placement and family reunification Passing of the Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act in 1924 by the U.S. Congress marked the end of unrestricted immigration to the U.S. The global quota was set to 700,000 in 1990. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 Controlling Migration
More seek admission to the U.S. than is permitted by the quotas, thus preferences are shown toward: Family Reunification About ¾ of immigrants Skilled Workers Approximately ¼ of immigrants Sending countries alleged preference for skilled workers contributes to brain drain- a term for the disproportionate amount of highly skilled and intelligent citizens migrating away from sending countries. Diversity A few immigrants admitted, because their sending country historically has sent very few migrants Quotas do not apply to refugees. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 Unauthorized Immigration
Unauthorized immigrants are those who enter a country without proper documents. Characteristics of unauthorized immigrates in the U.S. Source Country Roughly 58 percent emigrate from Mexico Children Of estimated 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants, nearly 1 million are children. Unauthorized immigrants have given birth to 4.5 million children on U.S. soil making the children U.S. citizens. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

87 FIGURE 3-34 NUMBER OF UNAUTHORIZED IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES Most unauthorized immigrants in the United States are from Mexico. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

88 Unauthorized Immigration
Years in the U.S. Duration of residency has increased for unauthorized immigrants. In 2010, 35 percent of adults had been in U.S. for at least 15 years. Labor Force Approximately 8 million unauthorized immigrants are employed in the U.S. Distribution Texas and California have largest number of unauthorized immigrants © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

90 Unauthorized Immigration
Mexico’s Border with the United States View from the U.S. recognizes motives that compel unauthorized immigrants to enter illegally Employment Opportunities Family Reunification Better Way of Life View from Mexico is more complex Residents of northern Mexico wish for compassion to be shown to unauthorized immigrants. Residents of southern Mexico are less tolerant because of number of unauthorized immigrants entering Mexico from Guatemala. Mexico’s government estiamtes nearly 2 million people a year cross into Mexico illegally through its southern border. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

91 FIGURE 3-37 U.S.-MEXICO BORDER: PEDESTRIAN CROSSING Pedestrians cross from Nueva Progreso, Mexico (foreground), to Progreso, Texas. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

92 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Immigration Concerns in the U.S. Most views of immigration by U.S. citizens are ambivalent in nature. Border Patrol They would like more effective border control, but they don’t want to spend more money to solve the issue. Workplace Most recognize that unauthorized immigrants take jobs from U.S. citizens, but they understand most citizens wouldn’t take the jobs so they support a path to U.S. citizenship for these unauthorized immigrants. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

93 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Civil Rights U.S. citizens favor letting law enforcement officials stop and verify the legal status of anyone, but they fear civil rights will be infringed upon of U.S. citizens, as a result of racial profiling. Local Initiatives Polls suggest U.S. citizens believe unauthorized immigration is a pressing matter to the nation, but it should only be dealt with at the federal level and not the local level. Many were opposed to Arizona’s 2010 law that obligated foreigners to carry a proof of citizenship with them at all times. More than 100 localities across the nation support additional rights for unauthorized immigrants—such a movement is known as a “Sanctuary City.” © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

94 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Immigration Concerns in Europe Population growth in Europe is fueled by immigration from other regions of the world, a trend disliked by many Europeans. Biggest fear is that the host country’s culture will be lost, because immigrants: adhere to different religions speak different languages practice different food and other cultural habits Hostility to immigrants has become a central plank of some political parties in many European countries. Immigrants blamed for crime, unemployment rates, and high welfare costs. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

95 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Europeans as Emigrants Inhospitable climate for immigrants in Europe is especially ironic. Europe was the source of most of the world’s emigrants, during the nineteenth century. Most Europeans fear losing their cultural heritage to that of new immigrants, while: Indo-European languages are now spoken by half of the world, as a result of European emigrants. Christianity has the world’s largest number of adherents. European art, music, literature, philosophy, and ethics have diffused throughout the world. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

96 Attitudes toward Immigrants
Characteristics of Migrants Ravenstein noted: Most long-distance migrants are male. Most long-distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with children. Most long-distance migrants are young adults seeking work rather than children or elderly people. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

97 Summary On a global scale, the largest flows of migrants are from Asia to Europe and from Latin America to the U.S. Third-world to first-world The decision to migrate is a conclusion influenced by a mixture of push and pull factors. Migrants face obstacles in migrating not as much by environmental factors anymore but by political or cultural factors. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Download ppt "Warm-Up Define: Migration Mobility Immigration Emigration"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google