 # Atomic Structure LEARNING OUTCOMES Chapter 2

## Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure LEARNING OUTCOMES Chapter 2"— Presentation transcript:

Atomic Structure LEARNING OUTCOMES Chapter 2
Describe the structure of atoms of atomic numbers 1 to 20 using illustrations State the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons Define atomic number and mass number Define relative atomic mass Interpret notations of the form Define isotopy List the uses of isotopes Predict the likelihood of an atom forming an ionic or covalent bond based on atomic structure

Atomic Structure Structure of Atoms
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Structure of Atoms An atom is made up of a dense centre called the nucleus, and a cloud of electrons surrounding it. The nucleus has two types of particles called protons and neutrons. The protons are positively charged. The neutrons have no charge (neutral).

Relative electric charge
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Structure of Atoms The electrons are negatively charged. The number of protons is always equal to the number of electrons, so an atom is electrically neutral. The relative mass and charge of each particle is as shown in the table. Particle Relative mass Relative electric charge Proton 1 1+ Neutron Electron ≈ 0 1− __1_ 1 836

Proton number and Nucleon number
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Proton number and Nucleon number The proton number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in the atom. The proton number is also called the atomic number. The proton number of the atom shown above is 3.

Atomic Structure Nucleon number Chapter2
The nucleon number of an atom is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the atom. The nucleon number is also called the mass number since the protons and neutrons give the atom its mass. The nucleon number for the atom shown is 6.

X a b Atomic Structure Atomic symbol
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Atomic symbol The structure of an atom can be written in symbol form as: X a b Nucleon number Proton number E.g. What are the atomic particles found in an atom of fluorine, 199 F ? ANSWER: 9 protons electrons neutrons (19 – 9 =10 )

Atomic Structure Electron arrangement
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Electron arrangement The electrons surround the nucleus like a cloud and move around it in fixed orbits or shells. Each shell is numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on, going outwards from the nucleus. Each shell can hold a certain maximum number of electrons. The maximum number of electrons each shell can hold is given by: 1st shell = 2 2nd shell = 8 3rd shell = 8 ( for the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table )

Atomic Structure Electron arrangement
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Electron arrangement 1st shell The electron arrangement of an atom is also called its electronic structure. Na 2nd shell 3rd shell The electronic structure can also be stated as a series of numbers called the electron configuration. The electronic configuration of the sodium atom shown is:

Atomic Structure Outer Electrons Chapter 2
The electrons in the outermost shell are called the outer electrons or valence electrons. Valence electrons

Atomic Structure Isotopes
Chapter 5 Atomic Structure Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are chemically alike in all aspects, except for their masses. However, some isotopes are radioactive. Hydrogen has three isotopes 11H, 21H and 31H. Isotopes of hydrogen 21H is called deuterium, 31H is called tritium. Both isotopes are found in sea water and the Sun.

Atomic Structure Isotopes
Chapter 5 Atomic Structure Isotopes Chlorine exists as two main isotopes: 3517Cl (75%) and 3717Cl (25%). The average atomic mass of chlorine is given by the weighted mean of the two isotopes: x x 37 = 35.5 Hence, in the Periodic Table the atomic mass of chlorine is given as Cl.

Atomic Structure Ions Chapter 5
In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons, so an atom is electrically neutral. However, atoms can lose or gain electrons to form charged particles called ions. Atoms form ions so that they can have the stable electronic structure of a noble gas such as helium, neon or argon. A sodium atom (2.8.1), gives away its 1 outer electron to form a positively charged sodium ion, Na+ (2.8), which has the same electronic structure as neon.

Positive and negative Ions
Chapter 5 Atomic Structure Positive and negative Ions If an atom gives away its outer electrons, then it has more protons than electrons and becomes a positively charged ion. If an atom takes in electrons, then it has more electrons than protons, and it becomes a negatively charged ion. Examples: Mg  Mg e- (Mg loses two electrons to form a positive ion, Mg2+) Cl + e-  Cl (Cl gains one electron to form a negative ion, Cl-)

Positive and Negative Ions
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Positive and Negative Ions

Ions of metals and non-metals
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Ions of metals and non-metals Metals e.g. sodium, calcium and aluminium which have less than 4 electrons in their outermost shells, always give away electrons to form positive ions. Non-metals like chlorine, oxygen and nitrogen which have more than 4 electrons in their outer shell, take in electrons to form negative ions.

Molecules of elements and compounds
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Molecules of elements and compounds A molecule is made up of two or more atoms chemically joined together. Molecules of elements are made up of the same kind of atoms. Molecules of compounds are made up of two or more different kinds of atoms. Molecules of elements Molecules of compounds

Atomic Structure Quick check 1 Chapter 2
The nucleus of an atom contains ______ and _______. A proton has a relative mass of _____ and a relative charge of ________ . An electron has a ______ mass and a charge of ______ . A neutron has a relative mass of _____ and a charge of _______ . An atom of potassium is represented by the symbol 3919K. How many protons, electrons and neutrons are there in a potassium atom? An atom of chlorine contains 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17 electrons. Write the atomic symbol for chlorine. Solution

Atomic Structure Quick check 2
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Quick check 2 What are isotopes? Give an example of an element with isotopes. The table below shows four atoms. Complete the table. Which two atoms are isotopes? Which atom has the greatest mass? Atom Nucleon number Proton number Number of neutrons Number of electrons A 14 6 B 15 7 C D 16 8 Solution

Atomic Structure Quick check 3 Chapter 2
Calcium is in Period IV, Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Deduce the electronic structure of calcium. 2. Complete the following equations: (a) Li  Li __e- (b) Mg  Mg __ (c) Cl + e-  ____ (d) S + ____  S2- (e) Al  ____ + 3e- 3. Complete the table on the right. Draw the electronic structure of the following: (a) boron, (b) phosphorus, (c) chloride ion, (d) calcium ion. Element No. of protons No. of electrons Formula of ion Na 11 10 Ca 20 Ca2+ Br 36 Br - O 8 O2- Solution

Atomic Structure The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Solution to Quick check 1 The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons. A proton has a relative mass of 1 and a relative charge of +1 . An electron has a negligible mass and a charge of - 1. A neutron has a relative mass of 1 and a charge of 0 . 19 protons, 19 electrons and 20 neutrons. 3517Cl Return

Atomic Structure Chapter 2 Solution to Quick check 2
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. An example of an element with isotopes is hydrogen. Atom Nucleon number Proton number Number of neutrons Number of electrons A 14 6 8 B 15 7 C 9 D 16 (b) Which two atoms are isotopes? A and C (c) Which atom has the greatest mass? D Return

Solution to Quick check 3
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Solution to Quick check 3 The electronic structure of calcium is (a) Li  Li e- (b) Mg  Mg e- (c) Cl + e-  Cl- (d) S + 2e-  S2- (e) Al  Al e- Complete the table on the right. Element No. of protons No. of electrons Formula of ion Na 11 10 Na+ Ca 20 18 Ca2+ Br 35 36 Br - O 8 O2- Return

Solution to Quick check 3
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure Solution to Quick check 3 4. (a) boron (b) phosphorus ok Return (c) chloride ion (d) calcium ion