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TOPIC 2: Objectives of Shariah (Maqasid as-Shariah)

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1 TOPIC 2: Objectives of Shariah (Maqasid as-Shariah)

Al Maqasid is the Arabic word for goals or purposes. The Arabic word maqasid from the root word, qasada, has several meanings. The related expression here is “qasada ila” meaning among other things, “to aim at something, to have in view, contemplate, consider, purpose”. Maqasid also means intention, intent, purpose, objective and aim. In Islamic jurisprudence, maqasid can be defined as interest (masalih plural of maslahah) that is obtained by persons in this world and in the hereafter either by means of obtaining benefit or through prevention of harm.

3 Al-Maqasid al-Shari’ah, or the Objectives of Islamic Law, is an important and yet somewhat neglected science of the Shari’ah. The Shari’ah generally is predicated on benefits to the individual and the community, and its laws are designed so as to protect these benefits and to facilitate the improvement and perfection of the conditions of human life on earth. The Qur’an is expressive of this when it singles out the most important purpose of the Prophethood of Muhammad (saw): “We have not sent you but as a Mercy to the worlds” (21:107).

4 The ulama have classified the entire range of maqasid-cum- masalih into three descending categories of importance: the daruriyyah (the essential), the hajiyyah (the complementary) and the tahsiniyyah (the desirable or the embellishments). The essential masalih are enumerated as five, namely life, intellect, faith, lineage and property. These are seen as absolute requirements to the survival and spiritual well-being of individuals, to the extent that their destruction or collapse would rapid chaos and the demise of normal order in society.

-is to safeguard and protect: the religion (Ad-Deen) physical existence (Al-Jasad) soul and mind/intellect (Al-A’ql) dignity/generation (An-Nasab/Al-Muruuah) property/wealth/resources (Al-Maal)

6 Cont… -In Islamic management context, the objective of organization should follow the objective of Shariah Islamiah. -Therefore, it will lead human being for the success in this world and hereafter (al- falah). -refer in the text book page (Pengurusan Islam: Teori dan Praktis)

7 The Methodology of Islamic Law
The process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence, and the body of legal advisements so derived, is known as fiqh. The shari'ah consists both of specific rules and regulations, known as ahkam, which are the subject of istifta, or fiqh analysis, and of general principles induced by scholars over many centuries from study of the Qur'an, sunnah, and their application in everyday life. The specific directives in the Qur'an focus primarily on the elements of formal worship known as the five pillars of Islam, because man cannot reason to this knowledge alone. These elements consist of the profession of faith, including the 'aqidah or articles of faith common to all Abrahamic religions; and the rules for the five daily prayers, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage.

8 Conclusion The renowned Muslim economist, M. Umer Chapra stated:
“The maqāsid al- Sharī’ah is everything that is needed to realize falah and hayat tayyibah; and faith is the most important ingredient for human well-being. It puts human relations on a proper foundation, enabling human beings to interact with each other in a balanced and mutually caring manner to help ensure the well-being of all. It also provides a moral filter for allocation and distribution of resources in accordance with the dictates of brotherhood and socio- economic justice, and a motivating system that brings biting power to the goals of need-fulfillment and equitable distribution of income and wealth. Without injecting the dimension of faith into all human decisions, ….it may not be possible to realize efficiency and equity in the allocation and distribution of resources, to minimize macroeconomic imbalances and economic instability”.

9 Figure 7 Human Well-Being: The Light of Maqasid al- Shariah

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