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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Active Learning Lecture Slides For use with Classroom Response Systems Introductory Statistics: Exploring the World through Data, 1e by Gould and Ryan Chapter 5: Modeling Variation with Probability Slide 5 - 1

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True or False Random means that no predictable pattern occurs and that no digit is more likely to appear than any other. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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To generate random numbers, one can A. use the internet. B. use a computer program. C. use a random number table. D. All of the above. Slide 5 - 3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Theoretical probabilities are A. the relative frequencies at which an event happens after infinitely many repetitions. B. the relative frequencies based on an experiment. C. the long-run relative frequencies based on an experiment. D. the short-run relative frequencies of an event after infinitely many repetitions. Slide 5 - 4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Empirical probabilities are A. the relative frequencies at which an event happens after infinitely many repetitions. B. the short-run relative frequencies of an event after infinitely many repetitions. C. the relative frequencies based on an experiment. D. the long-run relative frequencies based on an experiment. Slide 5 - 5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False Simulations are experiments used to produce empirical probabilities, because the investigators hope that these experiments simulate the situation they are examining. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False Probabilities are always numbers between 0 and 1, exclusive of 0 and 1. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False If the probability of an event happening is 0, then that event always happens. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False If the probability of an event happening is 1, then that event never happens. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The probability that an event will not happen is A. negative the probability it will happen. B. the reciprocal of the probability it will happen. C. 1 minus the probability it will happen. D. None of the above. Slide 5 - 10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The probability that an event will not happen is called the complement of the event. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False A list that contains all possible (and equally likely) outcomes is called the sample space. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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When the outcomes are equally likely, the probability that a particular event occurs is A. the number of outcomes that make up that event, divided by the total number of outcomes in the sample space. B. the number of outcomes resulting in the event divided by the number of outcomes in the sample space. C. we D. All of the above. Slide 5 - 13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The word AND creates a new event out of two events A and B. The new event consists of A. all outcomes that are only in A, that are only in B, or that are in both. B. only those outcomes that are in both event A and event B. C. only those outcomes that are in either event A or event B, but not both. D. all outcomes that are in either event A or event B, but not both. Slide 5 - 14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The word OR creates a new event out of two events A and B. The new event consists of A. all outcomes that are only in A, that are only in B, or that are in both. B. only those outcomes that are in both event A and event B. C. only those outcomes that are in either event A or event B, but not both. D. all outcomes that are in either event A or event B, but not both. Slide 5 - 15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False When two events have no outcomes in common—that is, when it is impossible for both events to happen at once—they are called mutually exclusive events. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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If A and B are not mutually exclusive events, the probability that event A happens OR event B happens, i.e., P(A OR B) is A. = P(A) + P(B) B. = P(A) + P(B) + P(A AND B) C. = P(A) + P(B) – P(A AND B) D. = P(A) + P(B) – P( A OR B) Slide 5 - 17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The conditional probability P(A|B) means to find the probability that event A occurs, but to restrict your consideration to those outcomes of A that occur within event B. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Which of the following is/are example(s) of conditional probability? Find the probability that a randomly selected person A. with a college degree is married. B. is married given that the person has a college degree. C. is married if they are college-educated. D. All of the above. Slide 5 - 19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False P(A | B) means “the probability of A occurring, given that event B has occurred.” A. True B. False Slide 5 - 20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The formula for calculating conditional probability is A. A B. B C. C D. None of the above Slide 5 - 21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False P(B|A) = P(A|B) A. True B. False Slide 5 - 22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The formula is equivalent to A. P(A and B) = P(A) P(B|A) B. P(A and B) = P(B) P(A|B) C. Both A and B above. D. None of the above. Slide 5 - 23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False To say that events A and B are independent means that P(A|B) = P(A). A. True B. False Slide 5 - 24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False To say that events A and B are independent is to day that the knowledge that event B occurred does not change the probability of event A occurring. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False Multiplication Rule. If A and B are independent events, then P(A AND B) = P(A) P(B). A. True B. False Slide 5 - 26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The Multiplication Rule that if A and B are independent events, then P(A AND B) = P(A) P(B) can not be used for more than two events joined by “and.” A. True B. False Slide 5 - 27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False When performing a simulation, it is best to do at least 100 trials if possible. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The Law of Large Numbers states that if an experiment with a random outcome is repeated a large number of times, the empirical probability of an event is likely to be close to the true probability. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The Law of Large Numbers means that if they get a large number of heads in a row, then the next flip is more likely to come up tails. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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True or False The Law of Large Numbers means that streaks will not occur and if they do something is wrong with the method being used. A. True B. False Slide 5 - 31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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