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Introduction Design, architecture, carpentry, surveillance, and many other fields rely on an understanding of the properties of similar triangles. Being able to determine if triangles are similar and understanding their properties can help you solve real-world problems. 1 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Key Concepts Similarity Similarity statements include Angle-Angle (AA), Side- Angle-Side (SAS), and Side-Side-Side (SSS). These statements allow us to prove triangles are similar. Similar triangles have corresponding sides that are proportional. 2 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Key Concepts, continued It is important to note that while both similarity and congruence statements include an SSS and an SAS statement, the statements do not mean the same thing. Similar triangles have corresponding sides that are proportional, whereas congruent triangles have corresponding sides that are of the same length. 3 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Key Concepts, continued Triangle Theorems The Triangle Proportionality Theorem states that if a line parallel to one side of a triangle intersects the other two sides of the triangle, then the parallel line divides these two sides proportionally. This theorem can be used to find the length of various sides or portions of sides of a triangle. It is also true that if a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionally, then the line is parallel to the third side. 4 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Key Concepts, continued The Triangle Angle Bisector Theorem states if one angle of a triangle is bisected, or cut in half, then the angle bisector of the triangle divides the opposite side of the triangle into two segments that are proportional to the other two sides of the triangle. The Pythagorean Theorem, written symbolically as a 2 + b 2 = c 2, is often used to find the lengths of the sides of a right triangle, which is a triangle that includes one 90˚ angle. 5 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Key Concepts, continued Drawing the altitude, the segment from the right angle perpendicular to the line containing the opposite side, creates two smaller right triangles that are similar. 6 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Common Errors/Misconceptions misidentifying congruent angles because of the orientation of the triangles incorrectly creating proportions between corresponding sides assuming a line parallel to one side of a triangle bisects the remaining sides rather than creating proportional sides misidentifying the altitudes of triangles incorrectly simplifying expressions with square roots 7 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice Example 1 A meterstick casts a shadow 65 centimeters long. At the same time, a tree casts a shadow 2.6 meters long. How tall is the tree? 8 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 1.Draw a picture to understand the information. 9 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence 2.6 m x

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 2.Determine if the triangles are similar. The rays of the sun create the shadows, which are considered to be parallel. Right angles are formed between the ground and the meterstick as well as the ground and the tree. 10 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 11 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence Two angles of the triangles are congruent; therefore, by Angle-Angle Similarity, the triangles are similar.

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 3.Solve the problem. Convert all measurements to the same units. 12 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued Similar triangles have proportional sides. Create a proportion to find the height of the tree. 13 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence Create a proportion. Substitute known values.

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 14 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence (1)(2.6) = (0.65)(x) Find the cross products. 2.6 = 0.65xSimplify. x = 4Solve for x. The height of the tree is 4 meters. ✔

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 15 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice Example 3 To find the distance across a pond, Rita climbs a 30-foot observation tower on the shore of the pond and locates points A and B so that is perpendicular to. She then finds the measure of to be 12 feet. What is the measure of, the distance across the pond? Use the diagram on the next slide to find the answer. 16 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 3, continued 17 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 3, continued 1.Determine if the triangles are similar. is a right triangle with the right angle. is the altitude of, creating two similar triangles, and. 18 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 3, continued 2.Solve the problem. Similar triangles have proportional sides. Create a proportion to find the distance across the pond. 19 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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Guided Practice: Example 3, continued 20 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence Create a proportion. Substitute known values. (12)(x) = (30)(30)Find the cross products. 12x = 900Simplify. x = 75Solve for x. The distance across the pond is 75 feet. ✔

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Guided Practice: Example 3, continued 21 1.7.4: Solving Problems Using Similarity and Congruence

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